Atari 8-Bit Computers

                      Frequently Asked Questions List
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       130XE                       800XL                          800
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   |LLLLLLLLLLL|        |/O\        |\/ |LLLLLLLLLLL|      | LLLLLLLLLLL | 
   |LLLLLLLLLLL|        |-----------|   |LLLLLLLLLLL|      | LLLLLLLLLLL |  
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       800XE                   XE Game System                   1200XL
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Subject: 0.1) Table of contents 0.1) Table of contents Introduction to the Atari 1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer? 1.2) What are some of the performance features of the 8-bit Atari? 1.3) What is the internal layout of the 8-bit Atari? 1.4) How did Atari get it's name? File Formats 9.1) What's this UUEncoding stuff (.uu, .uue files) all about? 9.2) What is an .arc file? 9.3) What are the .DCM, .ATR, and .XFD file formats? 9.4) What are the .XMO and .BIN file formats? 9.5) How can I make my commercial boot disk (tape, cart) into a load file or disk image? 9.6) How can I convert my commercial boot tape into a cassette image file? Video Signal 10.1) What kinds of monitors can I use with my Atari? 10.2) What is the difference between NTSC and PAL machines? 10.3) Is the software for the Atari 8-bit computers "TV-standard dependent?" 10.4) What are the PAL, NTSC and SECAM video broadcast standards? File Transfer Solutions 11.1) What are the best terminal emulators available? 11.2) Can I read/write 8-bit Atari disks on an IBM-PC? 11.3) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable? 11.4) What is SIO2PC? Peripherals 12.1) What are the Atari 810, 1050, and XF551 Disk Drives? 12.2) What floppy disk drives can I use with my Atari? 12.3) What do I need to connect a hard drive to my 8-bit Atari? 12.4) What should I know about modems and the Atari? 12.5) What is the Atari XEP80 Interface Module? General Interest 13.1) What's the best DOS for the Atari? 13.2) What hardware has Atari created in the 8-bit computer line? 13.3) What are the power-supply requirements for my Atari components? 13.4) What are the pinouts for the...? 13.5) What BBS software can be used on the Atari? 13.6) What versions of Atari BASIC or the CTIA/GTIA chip do I have? 13.7) Which versions of the Operating System (OS) are there? 13.8) What games support 4 simultaneous players on the 400/800? 13.13) What programming languages are available for the Atari? 13.15) What makes some XL/XE software incompatible with the 400/800? 13.16) What games run only on the 400 and 800 models? 13.17) What games make use of the Light Gun? 13.18) How do I type a tilde (common character in Web URL's) on my Atari? 13.19) What's the difference between ASCII and ATASCII? Coming soon: What is APE?
Subject: 1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer? 400 800 1200XL 600XL 800XL 65XE 130XE 800XE XE Game System Here is a very condensed history of Atari, centered around their 8-bit computers. 1972 Atari Inc. is formed by Nolan Bushnell, incorporated on Tuesday, June 27. Atari created the first coin-operated arcade video game with the introduction of Pong. The video game industry was launched and has shaped pop culture ever since. 1976 Warner Communications acquires Atari Inc. 1977 Atari launches the Video Computer System (VCS), later known as the 2600, giving birth to home video game systems. 1978 In December, Atari announces the Atari 400 and 800 personal computers, using the 6502 microprocessor. The Atari 800 was code-named "Colleen"; the 400, "Candy." The following are most of the team who originally designed the 400/800. Credit for providing this information for the FAQ goes to: Doug Neubauer (by way of James Finnegan, ) Jerry Jessop, Scott Emmons, VLSI HARDWARE: Jay Miner - Creator and System architect, VSLI manager Steve Mayer - Also one of the creators - Partner in "Cyan Engineering" Lawrence D. Emmons - Also one of the creators - Partner in "Cyan Engineering" Joe Decuir - ANTIC and system and creator ???A French guy - ANTIC logic designer George McLeod - CTIA and GTIA logic design Doug Neubauer - POKEY logic design Mark Shieu - POKEY chip design Steve Stone - POKEY layout design Steve Smith - Technician for ANTIC and GTIA Delwin Pearson - Technician for POKEY ATARI BASIC: (according to Atari BASIC Sourcebook) Paul Laughton and Kathleen O'Brien - Most of Atari Basic Paul Krasno - Helped with Trnscendental routines Bill Wilkinson - Designed Floating Point Scheme Bob Shepardson - Modified IMP-16 Assembler to accept special syntax tables Paul invented Mike Peters - Key punching and operating 1979 The Atari 400 and Atari 800 Home Computers debut at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in early January. Jerry Jessop, writes: "The first official small shipment of the 400/800 was on August 29th 1979. These were hand built pilot run units to Sears that needed to be in stock by Sept. 1 so they could be placed in the big fall catalog. The units were placed in the Sears warehouse and then immediatly returned to Atari after the "in stock" requirment had been meet. The first "real" consumer units were shipped in Nov. of 79 and were 400's to Sears followed very shortly by 800's." These MOS Technology 6502-based systems run at a clock speed of 1.79 MHz, offering 128 colors displayable simultaneously, up to 320x192 graphics resolution and up to 40x24 text resolution in 8 graphics modes and 6 text modes. Video may be displayed either on a composite video monitor in the case of the 800, or on a standard television for both systems. 4 independent sound voices are available through the audio output of the television or monitor, each with a 3 1/2 octave range, plus there is a built-in speaker for key-click and other programmable sounds. The 800 has a second cartridge port and a full-stroke keyboard, while the 400 has a single cartridge port and a membrane keyboard. Each has 4 serial controller ports and an Atari Serial Input/Output port. Originally, both the 400 and 800 were sold with 8K RAM, but later most 800's were sold with 48K and 400's with 16K. Each includes the 10K Atari Operating System in ROM. The 800 can be fitted with 1-3 of the following two RAM modules: CX852 8K RAM module, CX853 16K RAM module and must be fitted with a ROM module: CX801 10K ROM, CX801-P 10K ROM for PAL machines [WHEN WAS THE 400/800 REVISION B OS INTRODUCED????] 1981 November: 400/800's begin shipping with the new GTIA chip in place of CTIA, increasing the palette of simultaneously displayable colors to 256 and adding 3 new graphics modes. CTIA is totally phased out by the end of the year. Jerry Jessop, adds: "The very first proto systems did have the GTIA, but it had some problems and was not released in the consumer version until 1981. The GTIA was completed before the CTIA." 1982 The introduction of the 1200XL in late 1982 marks the single largest advance in the 8-bit Atari system. The 1200XL runs most software and hardware designed for the 800 and 400, but now runs a slightly more advanced 6502C microprocessor, and includes a full 64K RAM. The single cartridge and monitor ports remain, along with 2 controller ports. In addition, the 1200XL includes 4 programmable Function keys and a Help key, built-in diagnostic and graphics demonstration programs, and probably the favorite keyboard of any 8-bit Atari computer. Clicks previously outputted through the built-in speaker are now heard from the television or monitor's speaker. The revised 16K Operating System offers many new features, including an alternate International Character Set. 1983 In 1983 Atari replaced the 1200XL/800/400 line-up with the new 800XL and 600XL. These new machines include most of the features of the 1200XL minus the Function keys and the demo program. But now both the 800XL and 600XL have the Atari BASIC language built-in. In addition, these two systems offer the Parallel Buss Interface (PBI), providing fast parallel access to the heart of the computer. The 800XL contains 64K RAM while the 600XL has 16K RAM. The 600XL can be expanded from 16K to 64K with the 1064 Atari Memory Module. 1984 Warner Communications sells Consumer Electronics and Home Computer divisions of Atari Inc. to Tramiel Technologies on Monday, July 2. Atari Corporation is formed by Tramiel Technologies and its products marketed under the Atari brand. ( Atari Games Corporation is also formed from the former coin-op division and markets coin-op games under the Atari Games brand. Atari Games Corporation is a developer, marketer, licensor and publisher of coin-operated video games, having created such classics as Pong, Asteroids, Centipede, Missile Command, Gauntlet, Area 51, and San Francisco Rush Extreme Racing. Atari Games Corporation is a brand of Midway Games Inc. (NYSE:MWY). The Atari Games home page is at ) 1985 The new Atari Corp. delivered on its promise to advance the 8-bit Atari system by replacing the 800XL/600XL with the new 130XE and 65XE in 1985. The 65XE is nearly identical to the 800XL in features, minus the PBI. The 130XE, however, offers 128K RAM, plus the FREDDIE chip, supporting the unique (but rarely used) ability for the 6502C and the ANTIC to independently access RAM banks. In addition, the 130XE replaces the PBI port with the Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI), continuing the powerful feature of a fast parallel port. European 65XE's include the ECI port. Only by the final production run of the 130XE and the European 65XE (when was this???) was the XL/XE OS revised to include a "keyboard test mode" that matched the XE keyboard, and a RAM test that tests the full 128K of RAM. 1987 In a change of marketing strategy, Atari introduced the new XE Game System in 1987. Despite its label, the XEGS is a true 8-bit Atari computer system. It offers the convenience of a detachable keyboard and built-in Missile Command game (hold down Select at startup), while offering 64K RAM and full compatibility with the 65XE. The 800XE, a 130XE with just 64K, was released at some point in eastern Europe. [WHEN???] 1992 Atari officially dropped all remaining support of their 8-bit computer line on January 1, 1992. 1996 On July 31, 1996, Atari Corp. became a JTS subsidiary. JTS Corp., with headquarters in San Jose, Calif., was founded in 1994 to design, manufacture and supply enhanced-capacity hard disk drives for the notebook and desktop personal computer markets. (JTS filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection on December 11, 1998, and then converted it to Chapter 7 on February 28, 1999) 1998 On February 23, 1998, JTS sold its Atari Division to HIACXI Corp., a wholly- owned subsidiary of Hasbro Interactive, Inc., which is a subsidiary of Hasbro, Inc., for $5 million in cash. TODAY Hasbro is a worldwide leader in the children's and family leisure time and entertainment products and services, including the design, manufacture and marketing of games and toys ranging from traditional to high-tech. Both internationally and in the U.S., its PLAYSKOOL, KENNER, TONKA, ODDZON, SUPER SOAKER, MILTON BRADLEY, PARKER BROTHERS, TIGER, HASBRO INTERACTIVE, MICROPROSE, GALOOB and WIZARDS OF THE COAST brands and products provide the highest quality and most recognizable play experiences in the world. Hasbro Interactive, Inc. is a global interactive entertainment industry leader, innovating new ways to play and developing, publishing and distributing the highest quality interactive games and lifestyle products for a full range of genres and platforms. A subsidiary of Hasbro, Inc. (NYSE: HAS - news), Hasbro Interactive has offices in the U.S., U.K., Canada, Germany and Australia, and internal development studios in the U.S. and U.K. For further information, visit Hasbro Interactive's Web site at Atari Interactive, Inc. is a Hasbro affiliate, online at Atari currently (4/00) markets: Atari Arcade Hits 1 & 2 Centipede Frogger Glover H.E.D.Z. - Head Extreme Destruction Zone Missile Command Nerf ArenaBlast Pong Q*Bert The Next Tetris
Subject: 1.2) What are the some of the performance features of the 8-bit Atari? Some of this text by (Bill Kendrick). CLOCK SPEED: NTSC machines: 1.7897725 MHz PAL machines: 1.773447 MHz SCREEN REFRESH RATE: 59.94 times per second (Hz) on NTSC Ataris 49.86 Hz on PAL machines ANTIC AND THE DISPLAY LIST: ANTIC CIO/BASIC Display Resolution Number of Mode # Graphics # Type (full screen) Colors --------------------------------------------------------------- 2 0 Char 40 x 24 1 * 3 - Char 40 x 19 1 * 4 12 ++ Char 40 x 24 5 5 13 ++ Char 40 x 12 5 6 1 Char 20 x 24 5 7 2 Char 20 x 12 5 8 3 Map 40 x 24 4 9 4 Map 80 x 48 2 A 5 Map 80 x 48 4 B 6 Map 160 x 96 2 C 14 ++ Map 160 x 192 2 D 7 Map 160 x 96 4 E 15 ++ Map 160 x 192 4 F 8 Map 320 x 192 1 * F 9 + Map 80 x 192 1 ** F 10 + Map 80 x 192 9 F 11 + Map 80 x 192 16 *** * 1 Hue; 2 Luminances ** 1 Hue; 16 Luminances *** 16 Hues; 1 Luminance + require the GTIA chip. 1979-1981 400/800's shipped with CTIA ++ Not available via the BASIC GRAPHICS command in 400/800's. GRAPHICS INDIRECTION (COLOR REGISTERS AND CHARACTER SETS): Nine color registers are available. Each color register holds any of 16 luminances x 16 hues = 256 colors. (Four registers are for player-missile graphics. Character sets of 128 8x8 characters, each with a normal and an inverse video incarnation, are totally redefinable. PLAYER-MISSILE GRAPHICS: Four 8-bit wide, 128 or 256 byte high single color players, and four 2-bit wide, 128 or 256 byte high single color missiles are available. A mode to combine the 4 missiles into a 5th 8-bit wide player is also available, as is a mode to XOR colors or blacken out colors when players overlap (good for making three colors out of two players!) Players and missiles have adjustable priority and collision detection. DISPLAY LIST INTERRUPTS (DLI's): Screen modes can be mixed (by lines) down the screen using the Display List - a program which is executed by the ANTIC graphics chip every screen refresh: All other screen attributes (color, player/missile horizontal position, screen width, player/missile/playfield priority, etc.) can be ajusted at any point down the screen via DLI's. SCROLLING: Fine scrolling (both vertical and horizontal) can be enabled on any line on the screen. SOUND: Four voices of 8-bit pitch-resolution, 4-bit volume-resolution, 8-distortion sound can be produced. 2 voices (1 and 2, and/or 3 and 4) can be combined to make 16-bit pitch-resolution. Also 4-bit volume-only modes can be enabled for digitally sampled sound replay. A fifth "voice" is produced by the internal speaker on Atari 400/800's (for keyclick and buzzer) and in the XL's and XE's this was (fortunately!) rerouted through the normal audio output, and the keyclick can be disabled.
Subject: 1.3) What is the internal layout of the 8-bit Atari? The following four paragraphs were written by Chris Crawford and appear in De Re Atari (Atari#APX-90008), a book published and copyright by Atari, Inc., 1981-1982. The text been very slightly modified here for generality. "The internal layout of the Atari 8-bit computer is very different from other systems. It of course has a microprocessor (a 6502), RAM, ROM, and a (PIA). However, it also has three special-purpose (LSI) chips known as ANTIC, GTIA, and POKEY. These chips were designed by Atari engineers primarily to take much of the burden of housekeeping off of the 6502, thereby freeing the 6502 to concentrate on computations. While they were at it, they designed a great deal of power into these chips. Each of these chips is almost as big (in terms of silicon area) as a 6502, so the three of them together provide a tremendous amount of power. Mastering the Atari 8-bit computers is primarily a matter of mastering these three chips. ANTIC ("Alpha-Numeric Television Interface Circuit") is a microprocessor dedicated to the television display. It is a true microprocessor; it has an instruction set, a program (called the display list), and data. The display list and the display data are written into RAM by the 6502. ANTIC retrieves this information from RAM using direct memory access (DMA). It processes the higher level instructions in the display list and translates these instructions into a real-time stream of simple instructions to GTIA. CTIA ("Color Television Interface Adapter") / GTIA ("George's Television Interface Adapter") is a television interface chip. ANTIC directly controls most of GTIA's operations, but the 6502 can be programmed to intercede and control some or all of GTIA's functions. GTIA converts the digital commands from ANTIC (or the 6502) into the signal that goes to the television. GTIA also adds some factors of its own, such as color values, player-missile graphics, and collision detection. POKEY (means "POT and KEY" as in the paddles and keyboard) is a digital input/output (I/O) chip. It handles such disparate tasks as the serial I/O bus, audio generation, keyboard scan, and random number generation. It also digitizes the resistive paddle inputs and controls maskable interrupt (IRQ) requests from peripherals. All four of these LSI chips function simultaneously. Careful separation of their functions in the design phase has minimized conflicts between the chips. The only hardware level conflict between any two chips in the system occurs when ANTIC needs to use the address and data buses to fetch its display information. To do this, it halts the 6502 and takes control of the buses." While the 400/800 models contain a generic 6502 CPU, all of the XL/XE models contain Atari's customized 6502C chip. Alan Manuel K. Gloria, writes: The difference goes something like this: On the Atari, there are two microprocessors, ANTIC and the 6502 or 6502c. To allow them to coexist, ANTIC must shut off the 6502/6502c, a process called DMA. The 6502 supports DMA, but in Atari's implementation, it required 4 chips. The 6502c has this additional circuitry built-in. More on this from James Bradford, : The 6502c in all PAL atari's, late 400/800, XL, XE NTSC atari's have a special 6502. This 6502 has an extra line called HALT. It is controlled by ANTIC which it uses whenever it needs the data/address bus. The HALT line is on pin 35 of the atari 6502 and must be pulled high for the chip to work (I think) . Early 400/800 NTSC atari's used a standard 6502 and a couple of chips to stop the processor when antic needed the busses The 130XE and XEGS contain a small additional LSI called FREDDIE, a RAM address multiplexer. According to (James Bradford), "FREDDIE is a type of memory controller. It takes the address and clock from the CPU and multiplexes it with the appropriate timings and signals to use DYNAMIC memory. FREDDIE also buffers the system clock crystal and divides it down then feeds that to GTIA. The XEGS has a FREDDIE but it doesn't have the extended RAM. Even if it did, you would still need the chip that does the REAL bank switching. It is a small 16-pin chip (Atari/Best Electronics catalog number CO25953: rev9/page 42). It gets RAS from FREDDIE, the bank select bits from PIA, A14, A15 and the 6502 halt signal to control which bank of 8 chips RAS goes to. A14 and A15 then go to FREDDIE for the address range of the extra memory bank (or normal address range with no bank switching). The ANTIC/6502 select bits in combination with the 6502 halt line, control the switching of the PIA bank number bits to A14/A15 and which bank of memory RAS goes to. Why people say FREDDIE does the bank switching is beyond me. An 800XL can look like a 130XE with that 16-pin chip installed (That's right NO FREDDIE) and an extra 8 RAM chips." And more recently James Bradford has written: FREDDIE is just a memory decoder and timer. It replaces several chips in the 800xl The small chip near FREDDIE does all the bank selection.CO25953. One line from FREDDIE , Ras (or is it cas?) goes to this chip, Halt and the bank /processor select lines go into this same chip and ras (cas?) comes out. a pin for each bank. If i remember correctly, refresh also goes into this small chip. It would be quite easy to make an 800xl work just like a 130xe with this chip since Ras (Cas?) is required by ALL dynamic ram. Some words on GTIA bugs, from Andreas Magenheimer, : All of these newer and buggy GTIA`s were built with the "eastern european" XE computers. they were made in China. Although Atari knew about this, they did not change them. so you have to replace them with older XL/XE GTIA chips... But one more thing to GTIA and Antic chips: All PAL versions of these chips have a color bug, since gr. 11 produces 16 colors, but merely 15 different colors (one color: brown at the beginning and end of the palette is absolutely the same; normally there should be a red tone here !); with gr. 9 you will see 16 shades, but merely 15 different shades (the same as gr. 11, one shade is doubled!). Strange enough, I also found this color bug to appear in PAL Antic chips, there is also the red tone missing (and the brown one doubled !). This color bug appears in all PAL Antic and especially GTIA chips. Atari never fixed it, so you find it inside any GTIA equipped PAL Atari 800 and also the later XL and XE models. Since PAL users have to live with this bug, they sometimes do programs which look absolutely strange on NTSC and vice versa (not to mention the different Herz frame 50/60 hz and higher PAL line resolution/overscan). Imagine the following: a PAL GTIA has 15 colors in gr. 11 a NTSC GTIA has 16 colors in gr. 11 a PAL GTIA has 15 shades in gr. 9 a NTSC GTIA has 16 shades in gr. 9 Thus, a combination of gr. 9 and 11 gives: 16x16 = 256 colors on NTSC 15x15 = 225 colors on PAL And - as said before, the bug seems also to appear with Antic... Bad luck, we PAL users... Greets - Andreas Magenheimer. Hardware Arrangement (With thanks to (Thomas Havemeister)) -> +---------------------------------------+ | +------------+ | | | CPU (6502) | +-------+ | +------------+ <- | I/O- | | | +----------|release| | +-+ | +-------+ | +---------+<- |p| | | | | MMU |-----| | | <-+---------+-|----------+----------+ *-| memory- | |r| *---| PIA | | (trigger)|Controller|====\ | |managment|-----|-+--------| (6520) | |+---------| Ports |====/ | +---------+<- |o| -> | +---------+-|-+ <--> +----------+ | | | | ||| | | | +-----+ |c| | <-+---------+ ||| |(lightpen) | | RAM |<-A/D | | *---| ANTIC | ||| | | *---|8-128|-------|e|----|---|(2nd CPU)|---------------+ | | |Kbyte|->D | | -> | +---------+ ||| +--------------- | +-----+ |s| | || ||| | | | | | <-+---------+-|||--------+(screen) | +-------+ |s| *---| GTIA |-|+| | | | | Atari |<-A | |----|---| /CTIA | | | | +----------+ +-----------+ | | BASIC |------|o| -> | +---------+ | | | | summary |===| modulator | *--|8 Kbyte|->D | | | | | | |connection|===| ^^^^^^^^^ | | | ROM | |r| | <-+---------+ | | | +----------+ +-----------+ | +-------+ | | +---| POKEY |-|-|-+ |(sound) | | | |--------| |-|-|--------+ | | +-------+ |b| -> +---------+ | +----------+ | | |AtariOS|<-A | | | | | | *--|10/16Kb|------|u| +--|----------+ | tv/monitor | | ROM |->D | +----------------- | | | ********** | +-------+ |s| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | +-+ +-+ | | | | | | | | | +--------------*---|------------*---| | | | | | | | | | | +-----------+ +-----------+ +------------+ |ParallelBus| | Cartridge | | Serial | |Interface/ | | Slot | |Input/Output| | Enhanced | | ROM | | (SIO) | | Cartridge | +-----------+ +------------+ | Interface | | | +-----------+ | | | | | - memory expansion -cartridge with - disk drive - Z80 card programs - printer - 80 char card (games , dos ) - modem NOTES * RAM: 400/800: 8K, 16K or 48K standard 600XL:16K standard 1200XL/800XL/65XE/800XE/XEGS: 64K standard 130XE:128K standard * ROM: 400/800:10K OS, 1200XL:16K OS, all others:16K OS + 8K Atari BASIC * CPU: 400/800:6502, all others:6502C * 800 includes two Cartridge Slots, all others include one * early release 400/800 have CTIA instead of GTIA * 400/800 have 4 Controller Ports, all others have 2 * PBI is on 600XL/800XL only * ECI is on 130XE/800XE/European 65XE only Technical data and schematics for the Antic, GTIA, and POKEY chips are available on Curt Vendel's web site, thanks to permission from Hasbro's Atari Interactive Divisions release of this data. See:
Subject: 1.4) How did Atari get it's name? Graham Thornton, types: This article was published in "I/O - The Magazine of the Atari Home Computer Club" in issue 3 - Summer 1983. The magazine was the official mouthpiece of Atari UK. The article was not attributed to any one person. The words are thiers, not mine. How Atari Got It's Name ----------------------- The name Atari actually comes from Japan. And yet the company is most definitely American. Every wondered why? It's an interesting story and one well worth telling. In 1972 three friends decided to invent and market the first commercially feasible video game. They were Nolan Bushnell, Ted Dabney and Larry Bryan. To become a partner each man had to submit $100 to the project - a remarkably small sum when you consider the company's success! The next step was to find a name. Drinking beer and thumbing through the dictionary one day, the three friends came across an interesting entry under "S". The word was Syzygy, or "the straight-line configuration between three celestial bodies". What a perfect name they thought, for three such astronomically talented people! Now they could get on with the business of inventing games. Their first, Computer Space, was produced and all seemed to be going well. But then things started to get a little shaky. Larry Bryan decided not to ante up his $100 and pulled out, leaving Bushnell and Dabney to go it alone. The set up a shop in Santa Clara, California, and incorporated the business. A little later they invented Pong(r). Busnell and Dabney applied for the name Syzygy to the Office of the California Secretary of State, which regulates Californian corporations, but were told that they were too late. The name was already taken. Following unsuccessful attempts to buy the rights to the name from the first Syzygy corporation, which appeared to be inactive, the friends' solicitor pressed them to think up an alternative. This proved difficult. BD Inc and DB Inc were tested and then rejected in turn: the first bore too close a resemblance to Black & Decker, the second to Dunn and Bradstreet. Inspiration occurred at last, once again in an informal atmosphere. Bushnell and Dabney were both keen players of Go, a Japanese strategy game, and their best brainstorming always occurred over a good game and a bottle of beer. This time, they decided to make a list of several Go words to see if one of them would fly as the new corporate name. First choice was "Sente", which means "the upper hand" - something that greatly appealed. Second and third choices were "Atari", which has a similar meaning to the English word "check", and "Hanne", an acknowledgement of an over-taking move. Busnell and Dabney submitted the list once again to the Office of the Californian Secretary of State, which approved "Atari". The rest is history. When the company name changed, Bushnell and Dabney decided to update the logo too. They incorporated the "S" from Syzygy and the "A" from Atari into the new design. It was not until later, as the company became increasingly successful, that an advertising agency designed the slicker and now famous Atari logo - the "fuji" or stylised "A" design.
Subject: 9.1) What's this UUEncoding stuff (.uu, .uue files) all about? UUEncode/UUdecode is a UNIX utility that will convert a binary file into 100% printable ASCII characters, so that the file may be posted or e-mailed anywhere a text message can go. The 8-bit Atari is perfectly capable of UUEncoding/UUdecoding as well. On the archives: Uudecode 1.2a by John Sangster - very functional. filenames: Archivers/uudecode.bas, Archivers/uudecode.doc Yet Another UU-coder by John Dunning - both decoding/encoding. filename: Archivers/yau.arc, by ??? - "newer, cleaner, easier to use." filename: Utilities/uue.arc Dumas UU-coder by John Dunning filename: Cc65/dumasuu.arc
Subject: 9.2) What is an .arc file? A file with the extender .arc has been archived in a standard manner that is common in the MS-DOS world. This is done to make the file shorter, so it takes up less space on your disk and it takes less time to transfer between computers. The archives contains several 8-bit Atari archivers fully compatible with this standard, including: Super Un-Arc 2.3, Super Arc 2.0 by Bob Puff - highly recommended. filenames: Archivers/superarc.arc - both Super Un-Arc & Super Arc Archivers/suprarc2.arc - Super Arc Archivers/ - Super Un-Arc Archivers/supunarc.uue - Super Un-Arc
Subject: 9.3) What are the .DCM, .ATR, and .XFD file formats? These are all filename extensions used to name files containing entire 8-bit Atari floppy disk images. DCM - Disk Communicator format. Invented by Bob Puff, for his Disk Communicator 3.2 utility. Used when working with native Atari hardware. DCM specs at: ATR - Atari disk image format. Invented by Nick Kennedy, for his SIO2PC project. Used when working with non-Atari hardware. XFD - Xformer disk image format. Invented by Emulators Inc, for their ST Xformer emulator. Identical to ATR except without the 16 byte header. Used when working with non-Atari hardware. PRO - APE ProSystem format. Invented by Steven Tucker, for his APE ProSystem device. Used with APE, the Atari Peripheral Emulator.
Subject: 9.4) What are the .XMO and .BIN file formats? XMO stands for XMODEM. The idea was that the file was not plain text, but was a binary file. As a binary file, it had to be downloaded using a file transfer protocol such as XMODEM. The use of ".xmo" as a filename extender was popular once, but has been discouraged for years. BIN - another filename extension sometimes used to designate binary-load files. Like .xmo, use of .bin is discouraged.
Subject: 9.5) How can I make my commercial boot disk (tape, cart) into a load file or disk image? Russ Gilbert, writes: The disk image part is a matter of taking a copyable boot disk and making an atr, xfd, dcm or other disk image type file out of it, usually for use with an emulator. Before emulators, the Bob Puff .dcm format was used to store/archive/retrieve boot disk images. Almost all commercial software for the A8 is/was copy protected. For boot disks, this usually involved a large number of special formatting that couldn't be copied using ordinary sector copiers. Usually the boot process involved checking to see if a certain sector error occurred, then proceeding. If the error did not occur, the disk was a copy and would not work. For carts, usually the method of protection was to write to the cart area of memory and see if the value changed. If the value changed, the cart program was in RAM, not ROM and would fail to operate. For tapes, again a fair number of schemes were used. Some varied the speed at which the tape loaded. I'm not familiar with tape protection schemes. With all software media (cart, tape, disk), there may be program encryption, which must be decrypted before the program can run. This to make more difficult disassembly of the program. There were/are a number of products to defeat copy protection/allow copying of protected software for the A8. The most common way to defeat copy protection was to disassemble the software and revise sections of code so that the copy protection was defeated. A software with defeated copy protection is called a 'cracked' software. The basic procedure is to understand how cart/tape/disk software initializes, loads and runs. Usually make a file out of the software and 'follow the code', starting with loading of the program, to decryption to the actual running of the program. Today, it is unnecessary to copy original commercial A8 software because it has already been defeated and may be found at a few ftp sites. (Note umich archive has no commercial/non-shareware software.) Besides 'cracking' software, there were/are hardware devices to copy commercial protected software. The Happy 1050 and the Archiver, and probably other modifications to the 810, or 1050 allowed 'bit image' copying and reproduction of the special formatting that copy protected disks had. Using these archiving disk drives, a copy of the original disk, including all special formatting and the original code is copied, thus making a copy protected copy, not cracked, just like the original. For carts, copying could involve cracking or again there were/are products to reproduce the cart and simulate a ROM. Or the cart might be copied and burned on the correct type of eprom, to make a plug in cart. 'The Impersonator', the 'Pill' are two cart copy schemes copy the cart to a file, then don't change the code, but use a 'dummy cart' to fool the software into thinking there is a ROM present. Basic tools for copying, then cracking, carts and disks are a sector editor and disassembler. Carts are usually most easily dumped using a special OS, like Omnimon, to interrupt the cart and dump memory to disk. There are a few pd cart copiers that have the user plug the cart in when the program is running, I don't believe these pd cart copiers are very good or very wise to use. So, the basic answer to 'how do I make a copy of my copy protected commercial software' is don't bother. Find it on the net. There is one exception, in that this 'solution' involves a minimum of effort and is relatively safe. I refer to 'Chipmunk' and 'Black Patch' software to make cracked boot disk copy of commercial disks. HOWEVER, even if you use these two commercial archival tools, be sure you write protect your originals, and be careful not to accidentally write to the original disk. Finally, I'll mention a very modern (I mean 1997) product. The APE Pro system, by Steven Tucker, in the registered version of this shareware allows making disk images called 'Pro' images. APE (Atari Peripheral Emulator) requires a cable, called the SIO2PC cable, that connects the A8 13 pin serial port to a serial port on the IBM PC clone. To make 'Pro' images, a special adapter cable is needed, not just the 'standard' SIO2PC cable. The 'Pro' image can 'capture' the copy protection of an original commercial disk. The 'Pro' image can then be loaded into an A8 using the APE registered version software, thus backing up your original disk software. Note the 'Pro' image will only be of use to person(s) owning registered APE software and 'Pro' adapter cable.
Subject: 9.6) How can I convert my commercial boot tape into a cassette image file? (Ernest R. Schreurs) writes: For those of you that like ALL classic Atari software, there is now a way to store all software that has been recorded on cassette tapes on the hard disk of your PC. I have written a program that is similar to the SIO2PC utility written by Nick Kennedy. But this one is intended for use with cassette software. You will need the following items: Any PC equipped with a sound card and about 50 to 100 Megs of free disk space to work with. The sound card should be able to sample sound at a sample rate of 44.100 Hz mono. The sample must be recorded into a .wav file. You need the wav2cas program to convert the .wav file to a .cas file. The .cas file is a digital cassette image file that only contains the data that is on the cassette tape. Once you have that, you can throw away the .wav file. The .cas files are typically 16 to 64K, so they are relatively small. To load cassette files into your Atari (i.e. boot a digital cassette image) you do not need a sound card. You do need a SIO2PC cable or similar device. You also need the cas2sio program. The wav2cas and cas2sio programs should be available from the archives of Umich by now. They have been put together in one zip file, along with the documentation and the 'C' source code. You can download it through the web interface at the URL Note the capital in Emulators and in Peripherals. Thanks to William Kendrick for helping me get it uploaded there! You can also try the gopher stuff: gopher:// Steven Tucker, the author of APE, has added support for this file format as of version 1.15 of APE. It looks real neat, so try that out too! Thanks to Steven for adding a nice user interface for these cassette images. He did a nice job. I am hoping other using are willing to write some programs to get more enjoyment out of this underrated storage medium. My stuff is available totally free for personal use, so I hope you enjoy it. Read the docs about the conditions. Keep those XL's/XE's humming. If you have any questions feel free to E-mail me:
Subject: 10.1) What kinds of monitors can I use with my Atari? In general, you either need a Composite Video monitor, or a standard TV. Television: You'll need a video cable (not detachable on the 400/800), and a TV Switch Box. Used with VHF Channel 2 or 3. Monitor: The 8-bit Atari produces a color Composite Video signal, plus separate chroma (color) and luminance (brightness) signals which the best composite video monitors can take advantage of. Popular examples of such monitors include the family of monitors produced by Commodore. Gotcha's: -the 400 and North American 600XL lack a monitor port entirely. They can only be used with a TV. -the XE Game System provides an RCA-style jack in place of the Monitor port; so it provides Composite Video but lacks separate chroma\luma signals -the 600XL, 800XL and 1200XL lack separate chroma signal (can be added via hardware modification) -the XEP80 Interface Module produces a monochrome Composite Video signal via an RCA-style jack. This higher-resolution signal produces crisp, clear 80 column text on 80-column monochrome composite video monitors. The pinout of the Monitor port is in the pinout section of this FAQ list. The monitor connector on the back of the Atari can be utilized using a 4-pin DIN to RCA converter. You don't need to build a separate cable. (Brent Buescher, Jr.) writes: "The best monitor for an Atari 8 bit that is readily available today would be a television with an S-video input---these tend to be large and high-quality, so the s-video input is the deciding factor there. You'll have to build the cable yourself, and if you have an XL you'll want to do the Super Video upgrade that Ben Poehland published in Atari Classics a few years ago---this puts the chroma signal back on the pin that it should be and cleans up the video signal enormously. It's really more of a fix than an upgrade. I use a commodore split-video monitor. They work great and are cheap-to-reasonable when you can find them." (Bryan Edewaard) writes: "Yes, the best choices are monitors that support "Separated Video" (sometimes called Commodore video on Commodore monitors), or S-Video. These monitors have separate color and luminance video inputs, which give a sharper picture without cross-color artifacts - such as the colored fringes on text when viewed on a TV (although some games use these artifacts to get additional colors). If you have an XL computer, then it needs an upgrade to support these monitors due to the omission of chroma from the monitor port. the 800 and XE computers don't have this problem. The 2nd best choice is a TV or monitor that has a "Composite Video" (usually called just "Video" or "Aux") input. This is a signal that has the color and luminance information combined into one signal. The picture will be a little less sharp, but still much better than using the "Channel 3" output. >Where might I find one? I've seen them a flea markets, garage sales, swap meets, ham fests, and in newsgroups like this one. Plus, many new TV's support S-Video and Composite video inputs. >What are the advantages of using one of these rather than a TV? Well, it's all a matter of how many stages the signal must go through. 1. The Atari generates video as a color signal and a brightness (luminance) signal. These are passed to the monitor port as Chroma and Luma signals (XL's have no Chroma output from the factory). 2. The signals are mixed together to make a standard video signal which is also passed to the monitor port as Composite Video. 3. Then the mixed video signal (along with audio) goes through the process of being "modulated" into a TV radio signal (channel 3 or 4). This step involves removing high frequencies from the video (blurring it) and sending it to the TV in a fragile broadcast form that's suseptable to all kinds of interference. Then the TV must (1) extract the video signal from the radio signal, (2) separate the Chroma and Luma components as best it can, then (3) divide the Chroma in R, G, and B. Any of these steps that you can eliminate will help your picture. >Are there any other composite video monitors that anyone would recommend >(and where might I find one)? Maybe the 8-bit FAQ mentions these monitors. The most common one is probably the Commodore 1702 which has a very good picture and is quite reliable. If you plan to use an XL (which I do), upgrading the video circuitry makes as big a difference as what monitor you choose. Ben Poehland has some excellent articles in Atari Classics magazines for improving the quality of the XL's video, as well as restoring the missing Chroma output." Lonnie McClure has the last word on Commodore monitors: Comodore models: 1701, 1702, 1802, CM-141, 1080, 2002, 1902, 1902A*, 1084**, 1084S**. * The 1902A used a DIN connector for chroma/luma, which makes cabling a bit more of a problem. The composite and audio connectors are standard RCA jacks, however. ** The 1084 and 1084S had more than one version. Some used the a DIN connector for chroma/luma connections, like the 1902A, while some used standard RCA jacks. The 1902 and 1902A are very different in appearance. The original 1902 shares the same slightly rounded front case design as the 1080 and 2002, while the 1902A is has a rather square case design, and was manufactured by Magnavox (as were some of the 1084 and 1084S versions). Jerry Jessop, explains why French Ataris produce fewer colors: "I will tell you why it only has monochrome out, because it's SECAM and a SECAM GTIA was never produced. The PAL GTIA is used in France and the Lum outputs are run into an onboard encoder to produce a "psudo" color depending on the Luminance output, composite only. This is why a SECAM VCS or 800 has nowhere near the same number of colors (16) availible as a PAL or NTSC unit (256). The FGTIA was never completed as the market size did not warrant the expense. The largest SECAM market is not France but the Soviet Union (former) and in 80-84 sales of these items there were not possible."
Subject: 10.2) What is the difference between NTSC and PAL machines? Software written for NTSC (North America) will always work on PAL machines, but software designed on PAL machines (Europe) won't necessarily work on NTSC machines. Wayne Booth, writes: The differences with PAL and NTSC have to do with the number of lines displayed on the screen and whether they are using 50 or 60 Hertz. If I remember correctly, I believe PAL has 625 lines/screen and they refresh the screen 50 times a second doing 1/2 the lines each refresh so they effectively repaint the screen 25 times a second. NTSC is 525 lines/screen with a 60 times a second refresh - again only half the lines each refresh so a 30 times a second frame rate. This would change the amount of time available during vertical sync pulse, and the number of lines that need to be redrawn each time. Graham Thornton, adds: I use both a real PAL Atari 800 and a PAL-ANTIC 1200XL here in the US. Replacing the ANTIC chip with a PAL version changes the screen refresh rate to 50Hz which allows most of the PAL-only European software to run. Your system will still report itself as a NTSC machine, unless you change the ROM (see the Nir Dary upgrade), but most software doesn't care. But James Bradford responds: (7/19/00) Not true. the PAL Flag is in the GTIA chip, not in ROM. The NTSC and PAL roms are the same. Only Rev A ROM was had different versions. I am not sure if Rev B ROMs had seperate versions. Graham continues: The one problem you might run into is your monitor. Replacing the ANTIC will mean your North-American Atari is now generating an NTSC signal at 50Hz, instead of the usual 60Hz. Some people will tell you that modern TVs and monitors don't care but that isn't actually true. My brand-new Sony Trinitron 15" colour TV/monitor goes bezerk with the upgraded 1200XL, but my 15-year old 10" Texas Instruments color monitor (designed for the TI-99/4A) is fine. You can also use real European equipment here in North America, provided that you have a PAL-compatible TV/monitor. The frequency of the power system is irrelevant, as I use my 800 with a 110V/60Hz 1050 power supply.
Subject: 10.3) Is the software for the Atari 8-bit computers "TV-standard dependent?" {some PAL demos flicker, or won't run at all on NTSC machines} (Brent Buescher, Jr.) writes: This is because PAL machines have a vertical refresh frequency of 50hz (NTSC use 60hz) which translates into more vertical blanking time for demos and other computation-intensive graphics software. So PAL demos that won't work on NTSC machines are usually returning from a VBI (vertical blanking interrupt) too late. Some also attempt to use more vertical resolution ("longer" display lists) than an NTSC display can handle. (Thomas Richter) adds: Yes, it is. Mostly because the frequency of the vertical blank interrupt is different (60Hz for NTSC, 50Hz for PAL). The old OS A was not clever enough to notice the difference, so all system timings like the keyboard auto-repeat function depend on the TV system. These parts of the OS have been corrected with OSB and the XL versions of the OS. However, as most games install a VBI, their timing does still depend on the frequency -> they will run slightly slower for PAL versions. Another point is that the popular pseudo-colors used in the Antic-F (Graphics 8) mode are not colorful at all when displayed on a PAL TV, because of differences in the color encoding for the TV. The schematics of the Xl computers include however a hack how to change the PAL version to the NTSC version (the PAL versions include two crystals, one with 5/4th of the frequency of the other. One is used for the system clock, the other for the color clock), but I never dared to apply it.
Subject: 10.4) What are the PAL, NTSC and SECAM video broadcast standards? Here are several links on the topic.
Subject: 11.1) What are the best terminal emulators available? Here are some of the more popular PD/freeware/shareware terminal programs available. Ice-T XE v2.72 (128K XL/XE) or Ice-T 800 v1.1 (48K) shareware by Itay Chamiel, Emulates: VT100 Text: 80 column via a fast-scrolling graphics 8 screen File Xfer: X/Y/ZMODEM download Autodial: Yes (2.72) or No (1.1) Backscroll buffer: Yes--8 screens (2.72) or One screen (1.1) Capture-to-disk: Yes--up to 16K (2.72) or No (1.1) Summary: Outstanding flicker-free high-speed VT100 emulation.Recommended! FlickerTerm 80 v.0.51, freeware by LonerSoft (Clay Halliwell) Emulates: VT100, IBM ANSI Text: 80 column via a special Graphics 0 screen (no hardware req'd) File Xfer: None Autodial: No Backscroll buffer: No Capture-to-disk: No Summary: Fastest and most complete VT100 emulation; readability a minus BobTerm 1.22, shareware by Bob Puff (There's also a 1.23 that's specific to PC XFormer) Emulates: VT52 Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. w/ XEP80 File Xfer: XMODEM, YMODEM, FMODEM Autodial: Yes Backscroll buffer: No Capture-to-disk: Yes Summary: Feature-filled; best for BBSing filename: Telecomm/bterm12.arc Kermit-65 3.7, PD by John R. Dunning Emulates: VT100 Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. in gr.8; 80 col. w/ XEP80 (sort of) File Xfer: Kermit Autodial: No Backscroll buffer: No Capture-to-disk: No Summary: Excellent VT100 emulation; rock-solid Kermit Xfers filenames: Telecomm/k65v37.arc - latest version Telecomm/k65doc.arc - documentation Telecomm/k65src.arc - source code OmniCom by CDY Consulting Emulates: VT100 Text: 80 columns in gr.8 File Xfer: XMODEM, Kermit Autodial: No Backscroll buffer: No Capture-to-disk: No Summary: Only option combining VT100, XMODEM, Kermit; buggy at file Xfers filename: Telecomm/omnicom.arc VT850 B1, shareware by Curtis Laser Emulates: VT100/VT102 (plus complete VT220 keymap) Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. w/ XEP80 File Xfer: None Autodial: No Backscroll buffer: No Capture-to-disk: Yes Summary: Only option for VT100 emulation on the XEP80; 1200bps top speed filename: Telecomm/vt850b1.arc
Subject: 11.2) Can I read/write 8-bit Atari disks on an IBM-PC? There are several programs that allow an MS-DOS system to work with an Atari-format diskette. The following require a DOS and disk drive on the Atari end capable of the SS/DD 180K format: ATARIO by Dave Brandman w/ Kevin White - Reads SS/DD 180K Atari disks. filename: Diskutils/atario21.arc SpartaRead by Oscar Fowler - Reads SS/DD 180K SpartaDOS disks. filename: Diskutils/sr.arc UTIL by Charles Marslett - Reads/Writes SS/DD 180K Atari disks. Use MyUTIL! filename: Diskutils/dskutil.arc (Older versions are contained in pcxfer.arc, util.arc, and ataridsk.arc) MyUTIL by Charles Marslett with Mark Vallevand, and SpartaDOS disk utility by Mark Vallevand filename: Diskutils/ includes best version of UTIL for read/write of SS/DD 180K Atari disks, plus Mark's SpartaDOS disk utility v0.1e to access 180K SpartaDOS disks MyUTIL and the XF551 - tips from ]MyUtil works fine with the XF551. The XF551's speed is 300 rpm (sometimes even ]up to 303 rpm). I've got two XF551s and can read/write disks written on a PC ]with MyUtil on both with no problems. MyUtil even can write to a DS/DD disk, ]for a total of 360 K, BUT: the ATARI disks not only have the bits inverted, ]the second side is also read BACKWARDS respect to PC disks. That is, when ]MyUtil on the PC writes to what it thinks is sector 721, it really is writing ]to sector 1440! Worse, if you take an ATARI disk with a file whose sectors ]get past sector 720, MyUtil will attempt to read the sector 2161-n instead of ]'n', and you'll get a 'truncated record' error. The solution is simply to ]rewrite the code to take into account this (if sec>720 then sec=2161-sec). ]Let me know if you modify this. You don't know how frustrating it is to have ]to use only 180 K of a 360 K disk! I'm going to analyze the source code, but ]I don't know if I will be able to modify it properly. If someone does it ]before, please email me and send me an uuencoded copy or tell me where to get ]it. Here's some advice on using the above utilities from (Hans Breitenlohner): There are two technical obstacles to interchanging disks between DD Atari drives and PC drives. 1. The Atari drive spins slightly slower (288 rpm instead of 300 rpm). If you format a disk on the Atari, then write sectors on the PC, it is possible that the header of the next physical sector will be overwritten, making that sector unreadable. (The next physical sector is usually the current logical sector+2). The solution to this is to format all disks on the PC. (Aside: Does anybody know how this problem is handled on the XF551? Is it also slowed down?) Konrad Kokoszkiewicz, answers: "The XF551 disk drive is not slowed down - these drives are spinning 300 rotations per minute. To prevent troubles with read/write disks formatted and written on normal Atari drives (288 rot/min), the main crystal frequency for the floppy disk controller is 8.333 MHz (not 8 MHz, as in 1050, for example)." 2. If the PC drive is a 1.2M drive there is the additional problem of the track width. The following is generally true in the PC world: - disks written on 360k drives can be read on either drive - blank disk formatted and written on 1.2M drives can be read on either kind - disks written on a 360k drive, and overwritten on a 1.2M drive, can be read reliably only on a 1.2M drive. - disks previously formatted on a 360k drive, or formatted as 1.2MB, and then reformatted on a 1.2M drive to 360k, can be read reliably only on a 1.2M drive. (all this assumes you are using DD media, not HD). Solution: Use a 360k drive if you can. If not, format disks on the Atari for Atari to PC transfers, format truly blank disks on the PC for PC to Atari transfers. Jon D. Melbo, sums it up this way: So a basic rule of themb when sharing 360KB floppies among 360KB & 1.2MB drives is: Never do any writes with a 1.2MB drive to a disk that has been previously written to in a 360KB drive....UNLESS... you only plan on ever using that disk in the 1.2Mb drive from then on out. Of course a disk can be reformated in a particular drive any time for use in that drive. As long as you follow that rule, you can utilize the backwards compatible 360KB modes that most 1.2MB drives offer. While the above work with SS/DD 180K Atari-format disks, the following combination of utilities can be used to work with SS/SD 90K Atari-format disks, and is currently the best bet for reading SS/ED 128K Atari-format disks. AnaDisk 2.07, shareware by Sydex - Reads/Writes "any" 5.25" diskette filenames: Xf2/, Xf2/anadisk.txt Apparently 2.07 is buggy. Anadisk 2.06 is available at: Deana by Nate Monson - converts AnaDisk dump files from Atari format filenames: Xf2/, Xf2/deana.txt Explanation --> According to (Preston Crow), "As best as I can figure it out, if your PC drive happens to read FM disks (I'm not sure what the criteria for that is), then you can read single density disks on your PC by dumping the contents to a file with AnaDisk, and then using to convert the dump file into a usable format. For enhanced density disks, Anadisk generally only reads the first portion of each sector, but it demonstrates that it is possible for a PC drive to read enhanced density disks."
Subject: 11.3) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable? This section by mailto:cb541@cleveland.Freenet.Edu (Russ Gilbert) Q: How do I connect two cmputers using a null modem cable? A: You need a term program and RS 232 ports on both computers. The RS 232 ports need to be connected together using a 'null modem cable'. For up to 4800 baud, no flow control lines need be connected. Just cross the transmit and receive lines and join the grounds together. Transmit is pin #2, receive is pin #3 and ground is pin #7 on the 25 pin port. 25 pin #2 goes to Atari #4 (XMT to RCV), 25 pin #3 goes to #3 on Atari (RCV to XMT) and #5 of 850 goes to #7 of 25 pin (GND to GND). The right hand pin on the 'long' side of a female 'D' connector is #1. There are 13 holes on this 'long' side, 12 holes on the 'short' side. The numbers go to the left 1 to 13 then #14 is under #1 and left again so that #25 is under #13. Most term programs allow a null connection, without a carrier detect. Notably, 'Express 850' does not. I have only used 'Procomm 2.4.3' (the last shareware version of Procomm) on the PC and Bob Term on the Atari, but other term programs may work. To check your null modem connection, start both PC and Atari term programs, set baud to 2400 or 4800 on both computers. No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit on the PC. Be sure to use the correct COM port on the PC. Go to 'terminal' mode and you should now be able to type on either computer and see it on the other screen. To accomplish a file transfer, use Y-modem probably from Bob Term, rather than X-modem. X-modem will often append bytes to a file transfer, an undesirable event. There is also a very nice Z-modem recieve program for the Atari, called AtarZmodem by Larry Black for the Atari. A convenient way to make a null modem cable, up to about 30 feet long, is to use two female DB25 connectors (Radio Shack) some three or more conductor cable. Using the two DB25 female connectors allows unplugging your modems and plugging in the null modem cable into the two modem cables. This also avoids the confusion of variations in the computer ports. Most computers connect into the modem end via a standard RS232 DB25 connection. With this both ends 25 pin cable, you would cross pins 2 and 3 and connect the #7s together to make a null modem cable. The SIO port on the Atari cannot be used directly. An 850, P:R: connection, MIO, Black Box or similar device that provides an RS232 port must be used. Following are pin assignments for a DB25 pin RS 232 C port. 1. Protective Ground 12. Select Alternate Rate 2. Transmit Data 15. Transmit Clock (sync) 3. Receive Data 17. Receive clock (sync) 4. RTS (Request to Send) 20. Data Terminal Ready 5. CTS (Clear to Send) 22. Ring indicator 6. Data Set Ready 23. Select Alternate Rate 7. Signal Ground 24. Transmit Clock 8. Carrier Detect For higher speed connections, above 4800 or 9600, you need the flow control lines and Atari term software that has flow control built in. You also need an MIO or Black Box, which uses the PBI (parallel bus). A high speed cable would need not only XMT, RCV, and GND, but also flow control lines. I suggest a commercial null modem from computer store to ensure correct lines. A null modem is a small adapter with the correct lines already crossed. I don't know how to correctly connect the CTS, RTS, DTR, DSR, CRX lines for a high speed null modem. With a null modem, you just plug it into the 25 pin connectors of the two modem cables you might already have connected to your Atari and PC or Mac. You may need a straight thru 25 pin gender changer also. Following is in this FAQ elsewhere, but I summarize here: (Figure out or look for pin numbers on the ports.) Note that these are pin assignments, and NOT null modem connections with the XMT, RCV crossed and GND straight thru. Atari 8-bit PC AT 25 PC AT 9 pin ------------------------------------- 1. DTR 20 4* 2. CRX 8 1* 3. XMT 2 3 4. RCV 3 2* 5. GND 7 5 6. DSR 6 6 7. RTS 4 7 8. CTS 5 8 9. No connect? shield RI 22 RI Note: * above indicates the difference between an AT 9 pin and a Atari 8-bit 9 pin cable connector. eg. If you check continuity from pin 3 of 25 pin end and it goes to pin 4 of nine pin end, you have an Atari serial cable. If pin 3 of 25 pin goes to pin 2 of 9 pin end, you have a PC serial cable. (updated 3/1/99) (DTE = Data Terminal Equipment ie. your computer. DCE = Data Communications Equipment ie. your modem.)
Subject: 11.4) What is SIO2PC? From the SIO2PC home page, written by Nick Kennedy: SIO2PC is a hardware & software package interfacing the 8-bit Atari to PC compatible computers. The original idea was to have the PC emulate Atari disk drives so Atari programs could be stored on the PC's hard (or floppy) drives. It turned out to be quite successful. About 95% of my work was in the software, but a hardware device to convert logic levels was also necessary. This device is now commonly referred to as an SIO2PC cable. Features: Emulates 1 to 4 Atari disk drives Store your Atari files on PC hard or floppy drives Boot from the PC, real drive not needed to start-up No software or drivers required for the Atari; no conflicts: use your favorite DOS Twice as fast as an Atari 810 drive and more reliable Co-exists with real drives in the Atari daisy chain Compatible down to the hardware level: use sector copiers, etc. Print-Thru captures Atari print-out and routes to PC's printer Convert Atari files to PC files and vice versa 1050-2-PC version connects PC directly to Atari disk drive Nick Kennedy Another source for building SIO2PC cables is Clarence Dyson's page at
Subject: 12.1) What are the Atari 810, 1050, and XF551 Disk Drives? ==> Atari 810 --- a 5.25" floppy disk drive The least common denominator for the Atari. Single-Sided, Single-Density: 40 tracks x 18 sectors/track x 128 byte/sector = 90K capacity 19.2Kbps transfer rate. 288RPM Shipped with DOS I (very early) or DOS 2.0S Third-party upgrades for the 810: 810 Archiver -- copy many copy-protected programs Happy 810 -- Happy Backup, Warp Speed 52Kbps, 18 sector buffer 810 Fast Chip by Binary 10%-40% faster 810 Turbo by Neanderthal Computer Things (NCT) -- double-density see: ==> Atari 1050 --- a 5.25" floppy disk drive Same as the 810, plus "Enhanced"/"Dual" Density capability: Single-Sided, Single-Density, 810 compatible Single-Sided, Enhanced-Density: 40 tracks x 26 sectors/track x 128 bytes/sector = 128K capacity 19.2Kbps transfer rate. 288RPM Shipped with DOS 2.0S, DOS 3, or DOS 2.5 DIP switches: Black & white left: Drive 1 Black right, white left: Drive 2 Black left, white right: Drive 3 Black & white right: Drive 4 Third-party upgrades for the 1050: ICD US Doubler SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed (US) 54Kbps, sector skewing Happy 1050 SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed 52Kbps, 36 sector buffer, Happy Backup. also read/write 180K 5.25" MS-DOS floppies CSS Super Archiver SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 54Kbps (US Doubler clone) CSS Super Archiver II SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 54Kbps (US Doubler clone) Cheer-Up 1050 SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed 52Kbps (Happy clone) Speedy 1050 SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed 55-57Kbps (Happy clone) Super Speedy 1050 SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed 55-57Kbps (Happy clone),w/180K RAM SuperMax 1050 SS SD/ED/DD UltraSpeed 52Kbps (US Doubler clone) Lazer 1050 SS SD/ED/DD Warp Speed and UltraSpeed 54Kbps Rich Mier professes: You've been plugging and unplugging the SIO cable with the 1050 power pack plugged in, right? That's a no-no. Most of the time it's Okay, but about 1 in 10, 20 times, it will blow out 'U-1'. It's a CA/LM 3086 I.C. at the right, rear of the main board. A 14 pin DIL chip. Actually it is an array of 5 transistors. Unplug the power pack from the 1050, then unplug the SIO cable. Power can be ON on the CPU. The problem has to do with the secondary winding of the Power Pack. Remember, the problem only occurs 1 out of 10 - 20 times that you do it, not all the time. It doesn't really matter if the 1050 Transformer has power on or off, it 'Might' happen if plugged into the 1050. It is really bad on 810's. One thing, if the system has been turned off for, oh say, 5 - 10 minutes it won't matter. By then all the capacitors should be bled(sc?) to 0 volts. ==> Atari XF551 --- a 5.25" floppy disk drive Single-Sided, Single-Density, 810 compatible Single-Sided, Enhanced-Density, 1050 compatible Single-Sided, Double-Density: 80 tracks x 18 sectors/track x 256 bytes/sector = 360K capacity Writes "backwards" to the second side of the disk, rendering it incompatible with existing third-party 180K formats on the reverse side of the disk. High speed 38400 bps burst mode usable only with SpartaDOS X, SuperDOS 5.1, TurboDOS, DOS XE, and patched SpartaDOS 3.2. Rotaton rate: 300RPM. Shipped with DOS 2.5 or DOS XE. DIP switches: Both dips down: Drive 1 Left down, right up: Drive 2 Left up, Right down: Drive 3 Left and Right up: Drive 4 Chinon-built XF551-cannot read/write/format backside if no timing hole Mitsumi-built XF551--can read/write backside if to timing hole, if formatted Third-party upgrades for the XF551: CSS XF Single Drive Upgrade--3.5", 720K floppy drive replacement also read 720K 3.5" MS-DOS disks see CSS XF Dual Drive Upgrade--add 3.5" drive w/o losing the 5.25" drive also read 720K 3.5" MS-DOS disks see CSS XF551 Enhancer--overcomes sensor for index hole, create flippy disks see CSS XF Update--replace drive OS, adds UltraSpeed see
Subject: 12.2) What floppy disk drives can I use with my Atari? Major contributors to this section: Glenn M. Saunders, Tomasz M. Tatar, James Bradford, Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz, Don Schoengarth, Andreas Magenheimer SS=Single-Sided SD=Single-Density, 90K/disk side DS=Double-Sided ED=Enhanced-Density, 128K/disk side DD=Double-Density, 180K/disk side Printer port=has a standard Centronics printer port,+ maybe a print buffer Master=includes drive controller, can add additional,non-Atari-specific drives Top transfer rate=19.2Kbps unless stated otherwise Atari 810 SS SD Atari 1050 SS SD/ED Atari XF551 DS SD/ED/DD, 38.4Kbps burst mode Access Unlimited ATAR88-1 SS SD master Access Unlimited ATAR40-1 SS SD/DD master Amdek AMDC I SS SD/DD uses flippy Amdisk III 3" disk/carts,printer port,master Amdek AMDC II SS SD/DD dual drives, printer port, master AS SN-360 DS SD/ED/DD Astra 1620 SS SD/DD dual drives Astra 2001 SS SD/DD dual drives Astra Big-D DS SD/DD dual drives Astra The One DS SD/DD, printer port B&C 810 SS SD, optional Happy Warp Speed 52Kbps Concorde C-221M SS SD/DD master Concorde C-222M DS SD/DD master CSS Floppy Board, for the Black Box, master, support PC 720K and 1.44MB 3.5" drives, support PC 1.2MB and 360kB 5.25" drives, also read/write 5.25" and 3.5" MS-DOS disks see: HDI a PCB master Indus GT SS SD/ED/DD, Synchromesh mode usable with SpartaDOS X and DOS XL only. 72Kbps under SpartaDOS X, 37Kbps under DOS XL. KARIN MAXI DS SD/ED/DD/QD L.E. Systems LEDS5-01 SS SD/DD master, 134.4Kbps, 800 only CP/M expansion: 4MHz Z80, 64K RAM L.E. Systems LEFDC-04 SS SD Four drives, copies a disk in 22 secs, 800 only L.E. Systems LEFDC-08 SS SD Eight drives, copies a disk in 22 secs, 800 only LDW Super 2000 SS SD/DD, 19.2Kbps or 67Kbps LDW CA2001 SS SD/DD, 19.2Kbps or 38.4Kbps "California Access" LDW CA2002 DS SD/ED/DD,19.2Kbps,70Kbps w/SpartaDOS. "Calif. Access" Micro MainFrame MF-1681 SS SD/DD, printer port, 4K to 54K printer buffer, hard disk firmware included, master, Z-80 CPU w/ 16K to 64K RAM for CP/M, TRSDOS, MaxiDOS A, and OASIS. see: Micro MainFrame MF-1682 dual drives version of MF-1681 Percom RFD40-S1 SS SD/DD, master Percom RFD40-S2 SS SD/DD dual drives, master Percom RFD44-S1 DS SD/DD, master Percom RFD44-S2 DS SD/DD dual drives, master (80-track RFDs hinted at Percom AT88 SS SD, master Percom AT88-S1 PD SS SD/DD, printer port, master Percom AT88-S2 PD SS SD/DD dual drives, printer port, master Rana 1000 SS SD/ED/DD, stand alone disk formatting RCP 810 SS SD San Jose Computer Special Edition 810 SS SD, optional Happy Warp Speed 52Kbps SWP ATR8000 4MHz Z80, 16K RAM, RS232, master, printer port or 4MHz Z80, 64K RAM, RS232, master, printer port, CP/M 2.2 options: 128K or 256K CO-POWER-88 with MS-DOS; CP/M-86 TOMS 720 DS SD/ED/ID/DD/QD/ID printer port, MYDOS 4.50 on ROM, 70Kbps - SS/SD - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 128 bytes = 90 KB - SS/ED - 40 tracks, 26 sects, 128 bytes = 130 KB - SS/ED - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 180 KB - SS/ID - IBM S-9 - 40 tracks, 9 sects, 512 bytes = 180 KB - DS/DD - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 360 KB - DS/QD - 80 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 720 KB - DS/ID - IBM D-9 - 40 tracks, 9 sects, 512 bytes = 360 KB TOMS 710 DS SD/ED/ID/DD/QD/ID printer port, MYDOS 4.50 on ROM, 67Kbps one more format: double sided, 80 tracks, IBM (720 KB) also TOMS Navigator on ROM (like Norton Commander). Trak AT-D1 SS SD, printer port, master Trak AT-D2 SS SD/DD, printer port, master Trak AT-D4 DS SD/DD, printer port, print buffer Trak Champ SS SD master Trak Champ2 SS SD/DD master Trak AT-1 SS SD/DD master Trak AT-S1 SS SD/DD slave XFD-601B DS SD/ED/DD 70kbps,Top Drive,Synchromesh,UltraSpeed,XF551 compat. XFD-602B dual DS SD/ED/DD 70kbps,Top Drive,Synchromesh,UltraSpeed,XF551 compat While any standard "slave" drive will work with "master" drives listed above, the following are slave drives marketed specifically to Atari users: Access Unlimited ATAR88-A1 SS SD slave Access Unlimited ATAR40-A1 SS SD/DD slave Concorde C-221S SS SD/DD slave Concorde C-222S DS SD/DD slave Percom RFD40-A1 SS SD/DD slave Percom AT88-A1 SS SD/DD slave RCP 100 DS SD/DD, slave RCP 200 DS SD/DD dual drives, slave
Subject: 12.3) What do I need to connect a hard drive to my 8-bit Atari? ==> Corvus hard drive (10 megabytes) Fast but still relatively slow I/O, kludge through joystick ports for 800 only ==> K-Products/Supra Hard Disk Drive Interface by K-Products (bobkla19 @ - Bob Klaas) Some limitations on drive type and size and total number of drives in sys. ==> Multi I/O (MIO) (formerly from ICD) from Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe) ( - Mike Hohman) 256 byter per sector restriction. 256K and 1 meg ramdisk models. Printer and modem, modem will handle 19.2Kbps ==> CSS Black Box RS-232 Serial Modem Port (19.2Kbps) w/ hardware flow control, Parallel Printer Port,SASI/SCSI Hard Disk Port, Operating System Enhancements, optional 64K printer buffer. Supports drives with 512-byte sectors. see ==> IDE Hard Drive Interface from Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz and Jacek Zuk (see ) o Maximum drive capacity: 16777215 physical blocks on each device. o Maximum number of partitions: 16 o Maximum capacity of a partition: 16777215 logical sectors o Logical sector length: 256 or 512 bytes o Average speed (in kilobytes per second, WDC 130AB drive): - Native mode, sequence of sectors (R): 75 - Emulation mode, sequence of sectors (R): 43 - Emulation mode, back sequence (R): 28 - Emulation mode, random sectors (R): 13 - Emulation mode, same sector (R): 29 - Emulation mode, DOS file (W): 7 - Emulation mode, DOS file (R): 36 o Booting from any partition (on the standard XL OS) o Write protection capability o 8 jumpers to set the device number for the operating system o Sweet 16 compatibility ==> Fine Tooned Engineering Multi I/O II An IDE interface. Released? ==> MSC IDE Harddisk-Controller created by Steve Birmanns and Matthias Belitz * real device for the parallel-port of the Atari XL-Series * up to 240 partitions per harddisk supported * emulates D1: until D9: of disk devices (access to 9 partitions at one time) * full bootable from any partition (with standard XL-OS) * write protectition capability * supports master/slave configuration * more than 30 KB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (reading) * more than 10 KB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (writing) * access of ATAPI-CDROM with additional software ==> BTL Hard Disk System BTL 2001 Connector for 600XL/800XL PBI BTL 2002 Connector for 130XE/800XE/European 65XE ECI BTL 2004 SASI Hard Disk Adapter More info at
Subject: 12.4) What should I know about modems and the Atari? Thanks to Bob Puff and Clay Halliwell for helping me with this section. But I'm still not real confident about the accuracy here. I'd love for anyone to help me fix up this section! There are three types of modem protocols: modulation protocols, error correction protocols, and compression protocols. The international standards for these protocols are laid down by the branch of the United Nations known as the ITU-TSS (formerly the CCITT). ITU standards are known by their "V-Dot" names. They're only names, don't try to apply any meaning to the names. Modulation protocol standards, the major ones (bits per second) 300 bps - V.21 (103J is used instead in the USA) 1200 bps - V.22 (212A is used instead in the USA) 2400 bps - V.22bis 9600 bps - V.32 14.4 Kbps - V.32bis 28.8 Kbps - V.34 Error Correction standard: V.42 - requires either software or hardware flow control Compression standard: V.42bis - requires V.42, and hardware flow control. If your modem is capable of V.42bis compression, set your communications software to enable hardware flow control. If your terminal interface allows you to set the terminal<->modem (DTE) and modem<->modem (DCE) baud rates separately, you should set the DTE rate to the maximum allowed. If the DTE and DCE cannot be set separately, set the terminal baud rate at four times the maximum actual data rate of your modem (V.42bis achieves a compression ratio of up to 4:1). Examples: If a V.22bis/V.42bis modem is used, set the terminal for 9600 baud. If a V.32/V.42bis modem is used, set the terminal for 38400 baud. If a V.32bis/V.42bis modem is used, set the terminal for 57600 baud. Let's define a "high-speed" modem as a modem capable of V.42bis compression. (Some 2400 bps modems, and all modems faster than that) Using high-speed modems on the Atari Unless you're using a CSS Black Box or a patched MIO, the 8-bit Atari RS232 interfaces do not support hardware flow control. (I have heard that the P:R: Connection does too, but it can't be controlled in software.) So we must send the modem a command to tell the modem not to use it. Using a Hayes-compatible modem, the modem command AT &K4 will enable software flow control, and disable hardware flow control. AT &K0 will disable all flow control. The MIO patch, HyperSpeed by Len Spencer, is available at: Question. Why does my modem report V.42bis is used even when my terminal it set for the same speed as my modem? Cause the modem will do what you tell it. You've configged it to talk at the highest speed, using LAP/M, and compression. Even if you connect modem to modem at 14.4k, you can be talking to the modem at 300 baud, and it will still use everything. You'll undoubtedly drop bytes, but hey... Question. Why does V.42bis compression appear to function after I have sent the modem the AT &K4 or AT &K0 commands? And knowing the Atari doesn't support hardware flow control? Compression doesn't have to have flow control to work. Same as above - its just an added step that the data goes through. Note that if the modem's input buffer is small, you can overrun it easily if you send it data faster than it can digest and send. That's why you -really should- be using flow control with compression... But it's not a necessity. Question. Why does V.42 error correction appear to work even when I have disabled flow control with the AT &K0 command? Question. Why don't I have problems performing binary downloads when I have software flow control enabled? (flow control characters could appear in data stream accidentally) Depends on the protocol. Zmodem accounts for spurious XON/XOFFs. Xmodem and Ymodem don't. Also, you are able to digest the data as fast as the modem is giving it to you, hence no flow control is happening. I suspect it would be a different case if you were uploading using a streaming protocol like Ymodem G. More tips, from Clay Halliwell: On 11 Feb 1996, (Marc G. Frank) said: > I'm having problems getting a modem attached to my Atari 850 to > communicate at 9600 baud. When I set my communications program to 2400 > baud, everything works fine. However, when I set it to 9600 baud, the > modem echoes my characters but doesn't act on them. That is, at 2400, The problem with the 850 is that some of them (like mine) don't produce a PERFECT 9600 baud signal. As a result modems can't train on it, and while they will echo characters back, for some nitpicky reason they won't pick up on the "AT" attention code. The solution is to do all your dialing at 2400 baud, but set the S37 register to force the modem to try to connect at 9600. Then switch your Atari to 9600 after connecting. Jon Melbo responded to me in 1997: On Fri, 21 Mar 1997 11:06:11 -0600, "Michael Current" <> wrote: >I have a Zoom 2400bps V.42bis modem, connected through a P:R:Connection. I >need to do the >at&k4 no matter what I'm dialing into, and no matter what comm program I'm >running. > >Nobody's ever really been able to explain it to me, but I know it has helped a >few other people. Try it! What &K4 does is select XON/XOFF flow control. Apparently, all/most atari serial interfaces or at least R: handler software does not support hardware (CTS/RTS) handshaking (selected on the modem via &K3 which is also a default). Anyway, that's why the &K4 setting helps a lot. Glenn Saunders responded to other writing of Jon's, 4/5/97: : 28.8 CARRIER connects are possible BB or no, it's just that there is : no point in having your modem do data faster than your puter can. It simplifies modem configuration to let the modems connect at their native speeds. : Right! But you should never have your DCE to DCE speed exceed your : DTE to DCE speed. Never, unless you like errors and strange behavior. : With a BB, one should use CTS/RTS flow control, and force the modem to : operate at a maximum of 19.2 PERIOD (this means disable compression). It doesn't really matter. CTS/RTS can throttle the I/O down as much as it needs to. The faster modem will wait for I/O without any complaints. Disabling compression isn't a good idea because it will disable it for ALL calls including 9600 or 14.4 users in which it could do some good even on an 8-bit BBS. Software flow control is pretty much dead in telecommunication, and has been dead as long as data compression has been standard since the stop and start commands take way too long to register that way. : If using some other serial interface, I would use software flow : control, disable data compression on the modem, force the modem to a : max speed of 9600bps, and experiment with error correction. Does This combination is deadly for most modern users unless they degrade their modem via reconfiguration. And if users have to do this, odds are they will stay away rather than futz with AT settings to get a reliable connect. That's why I think the MIO essentially died as a viable BBS interface when 14.4s became standard. They won't work well unless the "mythical" hardware flow control of the thing is enabled in some way. An explanation of XON/XOFF from Eric Sokolowsky, 4/11/97: I looked in my modem manual, and the at&k4 command enables XON/XOFF flow control, which is a form of software flow control. As I understand it, when a XOFF is sent by the receiving end of a line, the sending end holds off sending for a little while to give the receiving end a chance to catch up. When the receiving end catches up, it can send a XON which tells the sending end to continue sending. Using this should reduce the liklihood of dropped characters. It's not as good as hardware (RTS/CTS -- check out the FC light on most high-speed external modems on fast transfers) flow control (enabled by default or the at&k3 command), but it's good enough for the Atari, which as I understand, doesn't normally allow hardware flow control, unless using such a device as the Black Box. to which Robert Ely responded: Just a quick addition. If you are using a modem at 9600bps or faster, don't use xon/xoff, use the RTS/CTS. Since you can do this with the MI/O and BlackBox, use it for all it's worth. If you are on an 850 or P:R:Connection, you won't be able to deal with it and probably won't be going at or above 9600bps anyway.
Subject: 12.5) What is the Atari XEP80 Interface Module? This section written by: (Thomas Raukamp) Since the development of the Atari 8-bit line of computers in 1979, users wanted better text displays than the default 40x24. There has been some attempts to satisfy this need, like the Austin-Franklin board or the Ace 80/80xl cartridge. For more informations about these modifications read The Atari 8-bit Hardware Upgrade FAQ from (David A. Paterson) The Atari XEP80 Interface Module is Atari's entry to the 80 column field. It lets a XL, XE, 400 or 800 computer system display a full 80 columns across your monitor screen. The XEP80 provides a 256-character wide by 25-line display window. Up to 80 characters are displayed horizontally at once, and you can scroll horizontally all the way to the 256th character, depending on the application you're running. The XEP80 is connected to your system via a joystick port. The XEP80 Module interprets commands from the computer for screen display or output to a printer. The module is supplied with an industry-standard 8-bit parallel port so you can connect a parallel printer to your Atari 8-bit (I even use a HP LaserJet IV on my 130XE ;) ). All programs that use the standard screen call (E:) should be compatible with the XEP80 Module. The software provided by Atari supports a 320x200 graphics mode - this mode only support direct bit images. Note that you can't use all of the standard graphic capabilities of the Atari anymore. Although Atari recommends a monochrome monitor for usage with the XEP80, it runs fine with any type of composite monitor. The output looks great on my Commodore 1084 for example. Along with the module comes a software-package containing an AUTORUN.SYS file, which is the XEP80 handler. If you want to use the module with an application that is compatible with the XEP80, which has it's own AUTORUN.SYS file, you can append the application's AUTORUN.SYS on the module's AUTORUN.SYS. *********************** Editors for the XEP80: AtariWriter 80 by Atari TurboWord by MicroMiser emacs subset by (Stan Lackey) MAE and its previous standalone editor ED
Subject: 13.1) What's the best DOS for the Atari? This is a matter of opinion, but general consensus is that all 8-bit Atari users should treat themselves to either MYDOS or SpartaDOS to appreciate the power of the system. Either MYDOS or SpartaDOS will work with almost any disk drive, up to 8 drives or hard disk partitions, and ramdisk. MYDOS is modelled after Atari DOS 2.0S/2.5, but provides subdirectory and hard-drive support. MYDOS 4.53 is freeware from Wordmark Systems (Charles Marslett and Bob Puff). There are two versions of MYDOS 4.53, one uses 3 digit sector numbers where possible, known as 4.53/3; the other, known as 4.53/4, uses 4 digits minimum. Complete documentation about the disk formats and commands, as well as the source code, is available. SpartaDOS is a completely different command-line DOS modelled after MS-DOS, though it is perfectly capable of reading all Atari DOS and MYDOS disks. SpartaDOS 3.2g and 3.2gx are disk-based; SpartaDOS X 4.22 is cartridge-based and includes many additional features. SpartaDOS 3.3a and 3.3b were rewritten by Stephen J. Carden for use with BBS Express PRO!. SpartaDOS 3.3c is produced on a 16K ROM cartridge from Video 61. It is recommended that all 8-bit Atari users own at least DOS 2.5 for complete compatibility with existing software, and then choose either SpartaDOS or MYDOS as they see fit. DOS 2.5, MYDOS and SpartaDOS are all available on the archives. filenames: Os/dos25.arc (DOS 2.5) Fte/fte32g.arc (SpartaDOS 3.2g) Os/mydos453.dcm (MYDOS - latest version) Os/mydos45m.arc (MYDOS - latest complete doc's) Another popular, powerful DOS is BW-DOS, freeware by Jiri Bernasek. BW-DOS 1.30 and all other versions are available via: Carolyn Hoglin, adds: I didn't see TOP-DOS mentioned anywhere. This superior DOS was written by R. K. Bennett of Eclipse Software in Sunnyvale, CA. It was based on Atari DOS, but with many, many more features. It fully supports my double-density, double-sided Astra drives, automatically sensing the proper density and sidedness of both drives 1 and 2. (MYDOS only seemed to do that on drive 1.) Also supported are large ramdisks for Axlon, Mosaic, etc. The latest version was TOP-DOS 1.5+, which came with an excellent manual explaining how to use its powerful capabilities. Any other versions of DOS all 8-bit Atari users should be aware of??
Subject: 13.2) What hardware has Atari created in the 8-bit computer line? Computers: 400 Home Computer (1979) 8/16K, membrane keyboard, 400/800 OS 800 Home Computer (1979) 8/16/48K, two cartridge slots, 400/800 OS 1200XL Home Computer (1982) 64K, early XL OS, F1-F4 keys, 4 LEDs 600XL Home Computer (1983) 16K, BASIC, PBI, XL OS 800XL Home Computer (1983) 64K, BASIC, PBI, XL OS 65XE Personal Computer (1985) same as 800XL minus PBI (Europe: includes ECI) 130XE Personal Computer(1985) same as 65XE with 128K plus ECI 800XE Personal Computer(1987?)same as 130XE but 64K. Mostly eastern Europe. XE Game System (1987) same as 65XE plus Missile Command, detach keybd Peripherals: 410 Program Recorder -Japan and Hong Kong versions. 410a--Taiwan version 810 Disk Drive -SS/SD 90K with DOS 1 or DOS 2.0S,MPI&Tandon vers. 820 40-Column Printer - 822 Thermal Printer -40 col. 825 80-Column Printer -req. 850 830 Acoustic Modem -300 baud req. 850, w/ Telelink I. =Novation 'CAT' 835 Direct Connect Modem -300 baud, with Telelink II software 850 Interface Module -4 9-pin serial, 1 15-pin parallel ports, beige & black metal versions 1010 Program Recorder -Sanyo and Chelco versions 1020 Color Printer -40 col.(80 by command) print/plot in 4 colors (Frank McKenney) writes: The printer/plotter mechanism for the Atari 1020 is (I believe) the same one used in the Tandy/Radio Shack CGP series and the Commodore 1520(?), and was made by a company named ALPS. 1025 80-Column Printer -7-pin dot matrix. =Okidata ML80. 40cps 1027 Letter-Quality Printer-80 col letter quality =Mann-Tally Riteman LQ. 20cps 1029 Printer -7-pin dot matrix, same as Commodore MPS-801 1030 Direct Connect Modem -300 baud, with ModemLink software. 2 SIO ports 1050 Disk Drive -SS/ED 128K with DOS 3 or DOS 2.5 1064 -64K RAM module for 600XL XC11 Program Recorder XC12 Program Recorder XCA12 Program Recorder CA12 Program Recorder XC13 Program Recorder -XC12 which was "T2000 ready". Czech/Slovak/Poland XL12 Program Recorder -XC12 w/slight changed design. Czech/Slovak/Poland XM301 Modem -300 baud, w/ XE Term software. Permanent SIO cable XMM801 Printer -80 col. Ribbon: Mannesman/Tally MS80 XDM121 Printer -80 col.letter quality. Ribbon: Silver Reed CF130, Olivetti ET201,ET221,Nu-Kote NK136 XF551 Disk Drive -DS/DD 360K with DOS XE XEP80 Interface Module -80 col. video display and DB25 parallel port SX212 Modem -1200 baud, rarely with SX-Express! package. SIO & DB25 RS232 serial ports.external power supply For definitive information on unreleased Atari products, see: Atari Historical Society, (Curt Vendel, ) Atari 8-bit vaporware computers: (note some are more vaporous than others) 800D (Developers Bus System) 1000 Sweet 16 Project, lower end model. Became the 1200XL 1000-X Sweet 16 Project, higher end model. Became the 1200XL 1200 1200XL internally, many slight cosmetic differences 1200XLS 1200XL Show prototype, top-mounted cartridge slot 600 early 600XL, all black case, joyports on the left, missing PBI 800XL brown prototype 800XLD low-cost 1450XLD,no modem&speech,include disk drive controller&FREDDIE 800XLF late European 800XL with a redesigned motherboard, + the FREDDIE chip 900XLF 800XLF motherboard with further improvements,found in early 65XE's 1250XLD Earlier name for the 1450XLD 1400XL brown prototype 1400XL 800XL plus modem, speech synth.(looks like a 1200XL) 1450XL 1400XL plus room for 2 internal 5.25" drives (controller not included) 1450XLD 1400XL plus 5.25" floppy drive (Epson SD521 360K disk drives) 1600XL Amiga/Amiga-like.Now appears that 1850XLD was the model name for this 1650XLD to use 1450XLD case and 1200XL keyboard 1850XLD "Mickey" Atari clone of the Amiga Lorraine 65XEP 65XE plus 3.5" floppy drive, 5" green monitor 65XEM 65XE plus AMY sound chip Atari 8-bit vaporware peripherals:(note some are more vaporous than others) 815 Dual Disk Drive -2 x SS/DD 180K with DOS 2.0D 1027 PLUS -daisy-wheel, 80 columns 1053 -looks like a 1050, but supports DS/DD 360K format 1055 -a 1050 (SS/ED) with a 3.5" mechanism 1060 CP/M Add-On Module -"SweetPea" Z-80 CPU, 64K RAM, CP/M 2.2, 80 col display 1090 XL Expansion System-5 PBI slots, CP/M/MS-DOS/Apple II compatible XM128 -12" green monitor w/ built-in 80-column card XC1411 -composite 14" color monitor XF521 -5.25" floppy drive - 1050 compatible, in XE style XF351 -a 3.5" drive. XC35 -an XF551 with a 3.5" mechanism XTM201 -non-impact printer XTC201 -XE Thermal Color Printer
Subject: 13.3) What are the power-supply requirements for my Atari components? Thanks to Matthias Belitz, for the European data in this section. I need more international help! As with the rest of this FAQ list, please let me know if any of this information conflicts with the units you have. The most important information is the voltage (in volts) required, and whether you need a transformer (AC output) or an adapter (DC output). The power (in voltamps or watts) and current (in amperes) specifications of the original equipment as presented here should be regarded as minimum values. Higher-than-specified power and current capacities are entirely usable, and often preferable because such supplies run cooler and last longer. Direct Current: Power (in watts) = current (in amps) * voltage (in volts) Alternating Current: Apparent Power (in voltamps) = current (in amps) * voltage (in volts) Effective/True Power (in watts) = current (in amps) * voltage (in volts) * (cosine of the angle of lag) N O R T H A M E R I C A: INPUT = 115-120 V AC, 50/60Hz ======================== 9 V AC 5.4 VA (600 mA) Atari#CO62195 transformer: 1030 9 V AC 4.5 VA (500 mA) Atari#CO61516 transformer: 1010 9 V AC 15.3 VA (1.7 A) Atari#CO14319 transformer: 400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL 9 V AC 18 VA (2.0 A) Atari#CA014748 transformer: 400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL,810 9 V AC 18 VA (2.0 A) Atari#CA016804 transformer: 400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL,810 9 V AC 31 VA (3.4 A) Atari#CO17945 transformer: 400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL,810,1020,1050,XF551 9 V AC 50 VA (5.6 A) Atari#CA017964 transformer: 400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL,810,1020,1050,XF551 9.5 V AC 40 VA (4.2 A) Atari#CO61636 transformer: 1027,1090XL 20 V AC 6.6 VA (330 mA) Atari#CO60479/CA060535 transformer: 835 24 V AC 3.6 VA (150 mA) Atari#CA016751 transformer: 830 5 V DC 1.0 A (5.0 W) Atari#CO70042 adapter: 600XL,65XE,XE Game System 5 V DC 1.5 A (7.5 W) Atari#CO61982/CA024814 adapter: 600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XE Game System 6 V DC 300 mA (1.8 W) Atari#??????? adapter: "410P" (vaporware) 9 V DC 200 mA (1.8 W) adapter: MPP1000C (the modem from MPP, interfaces via a joystick port) 9 V DC 500 mA (4.5 W) Atari#CO16353/CA014034/CO10472/CX261 adapter: XEP80,SX212,2600 (center positive) 9.3 V DC 1.93 A (18 W) Atari#CO18187 adapter: Indus GT,5200 11.5 V DC 1.95 A (22 W) Atari#CA019141 adapter: Indus GT,5200 5 V / 12 V DC 1.1 A (5.5 W / 13.2 W) Atari#CO62297/DV1450 adapter: 1400XL,1450XLD E U R O P E (and elsewhere?) INPUT = 220 V AC, 50 Hz, 26 VA ============================= 5 V DC 1,8 A, #CO61763-107: 800XL 5 V DC 1,5 A (7,5 W) #CO61763-34 : 800XL (U.K., 240 V AC in) 5 V DC 1.5 A (7.5 W) #CO61763-11 : 65XE,800XL,800XE (Germany) two ones with the same part number, but different cases and different input Values :#1, 65XE (Poland, made in Taiwan), Input 22 VA #2, 800XL, Input 26 VA 9 V AC 27 VA (3.0 A) CO60592-34/TM 7498 : 1050 (UK) 9V AC 0,5 A, CO#61516/34 : 1010 (UK) 9,3V AC, 1,66 A CO# (not printed), FW 6799: 800 These draw their power from the SIO +5 V: XM301 (60 mA),XC11,XC12,ICD/FTe P:R:Connection,Wizztronics MidiMax,RVerter Draws power from the 600XL PBI: 1064 These have built-in power supplies (plug directly into the wall): 410,815,820,825,1025,1029,XMM801,XDM121 OTHER: The ICD/FTe Multi I/O (MIO), all versions, can use both AC and DC supplies. But stick to voltages of at least 6.2-7.2 V.
Subject: 13.4) What are the pinouts for the...? Serial I/O (SIO) Port (all machines): 2 12 o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1 13 1. Clock Input 8. Motor Control 2. Clock Output 9. Proceed 3. Data Input 10. +5V/Ready 4. Ground 11. Audio Input 5. Data Output 12. +12V (400,800 only. 1400XL/1450XLD?) 6. Ground 13. Interrupt 7. Command Cartridge Slot ("Left" slot on all machines; "Right" slot on 800 only): A B C D E F H J K L M N P R S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1. ~S4(Left) R/~W late(Right) A. RD4(Left) B02(Right) 2. A3 B. GND 3. A2 C. A4 4. A1 D. A5 5. A0 E. A6 6. D4 F. A7 7. D5 H. A8 8. D2 J. A9 9. D1 K. A12 10. D0 L. D3 11. D6 M. D7 12. ~S5(Left) ~S4(Right) N. A11 13. +5V P. A10 14. RD5(Left) RD4(Right) R. R/~W 15. ~CCTL S. B02 Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI) (130XE, 800XE and European 65XE only): A B C D E F H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A. Reserved 1. ~EXSEL B. ~IRQ 2. ~RST C. ~HALT 3. ~D1XX D. A13 4. ~MPD E. A14 5. Audio F. A15 6. ~REF H. GND 7. +5V Monitor Jack (all but 400, N. American 600XL, XE Game System, SECAM systems): 3 1 5 4 2 1. Composite Luminance 2. Ground 3. Audio Output 4. Composite Video 5. Composite Chroma (not on 800XL,1200XL; grounded on 600XL) Monitor Jack, SECAM systems: Jer Sobola, provided this pinout: V 5 1 3 4 2 6 1 +12V DC 5mA max 2 Audio 1 output 3 Audio 2 output 4 Video output 5 GND 6 +5V 100mA max Amplitude Audio 2 is about 6 times closer than Audio 1 Power Adapter Plug (all but 400,800,1200XL,1400XL,1450XLD): 7 6 3 1 5 4 2 1. +5V 2. Shield 3. Ground 4. +5V 5. Ground 6. +5V 7. Ground Controller Port (4 on 400/800, 2 on all others): 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CX22 trackball meanings from Steve Wallace: 1. (Joystick) Forward Input X Direction 2. (Joystick) Back Input X Motion 3. (Joystick) Left Input Y Direction 4. (Joystick) Right Input Y Motion 5. B Potentiometer Input 6. Trigger Input / Light Pen Input. Port 4 only on 400 7. +5V 8. Ground 9. A Potentiometer Input Parallel Bus Interface (PBI) (600XL and 800XL only): 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 1. GND ground 2. External select 3. A0 Address output 4. A1 5. A2 6. A3 7. A4 8. A5 9. A6 10. GND 11. A7 12. A8 13. A9 14. A10 15. A11 16. A12 17. A13 18. A14 19. GND 20. A15 21. D0 Data (bidirectional) 22. D1 23. D2 24. D3 25. D4 26. D5 27. D6 28. D7 29. GND 30. GND 31. Phase 2 clock output 32. GND 33. NC Reserved 34. Reset output 35. (IRQ) Interrupt request 36. Ready input 37. NC 38. External decoder output 39. NC 40. Refresh output 41. Column address output 42. GND 43. Math pack disable input 44. Row addr strobe 45. GND 46. Latch read/write out 47. NC (+5V on 600XL only) 48. NC (+5V on 600XL only, used to power 1064) 49. Audio input 50. GND R1: Serial port DB9P (850 Interface Module): 5 4 3 2 1 ____________________________ 9 8 7 6 / DB25P 1. DTR - Data Terminal Ready (out) + 20 2. CRX - Signal (carrier) Detect (in) + 8 3. XMT - Transmitted Data (out) + 2 4. RCV - Received Data (in) + 3 5. GND - Signal Ground + 7 6. DSR - Data Set Ready (in) + 6 7. RTS - Request to Send (out) + 4 8. CTS - Clear to Send (in) + 5 No connection to shield + Frame - to the shield wire R2: Serial port (850 Interface Module): 5 4 3 2 1 9 8 7 6 1. DTR 3. Send Data 4. Receive Data 5. Signal Ground 6. DSR R3: Serial port (850 Interface Module): 5 4 3 2 1 9 8 7 6 1. DTR 3. Send Data 4. Receive 5. Signal Ground 7. RTS 8. -8 Volts R4: Serial port (850 Interface Module): 5 4 3 2 1 9 8 7 6 1. Send Data + 3. Send Data - 7. Receive Data + 9. Receive Data - (20 mA) P: Parallel port (850 Interface Module) DB15P: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ____________________________ 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 / 36 pin Centronics (male) 1. Data Strobe + 1 2. D0 + 2 3. D1 + 3 4. D2 + 4 5. D3 + 5 6. D4 + 6 7. D5 + 7 8. D6 + 8 9. Data Pull up (+5v) + 10. - + 11. Ground + 16 12. Fault + 32 13. Busy + 11 14. - + 15. D7 + 9 No connection to shield + Frame - to the shield wire P: Parallel port (XEP80 Interface Module): 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 1. Strobe 2-9. Parallel Data 10. Not Used 11. Busy 12-17. Not Used 18-25. Ground
Subject: 13.5) What BBS software can be used on the Atari? This section mostly by (Winston Smith) Credit for AMIS to MACE by Steven Sturza, o A.M.I.S. BBS -- The A.C.E. Message Information Service. The AMIS BBS was written in BASIC by people from the Michigan Atari Computer Enthusiasts. It included designs for a ring-detector. You needed a sector editor and had to allocate message space by hand, hex byte by hex byte. Steven Sturza adds: The AMIS BBS was written by people from the Michigan Atari Computer Enthusiasts. o FoReM BBS -- Friends of Rickey Moose BBS. At the time, there were a lot of BBSes around called things such as "FORUM-80" and "BULLET-80", ergo the name. FoReM BBS was the first truly RBBS-like BBS for the ATARI 8-bit. It was programmed in BASIC and was somewhat crashy. I think that this is the great-grandparent of the FOREM-XE BBSes that survive today. Matt Singer, writes: FoReM BBS derived from an early AMIS. When multiple message areas were added the name was extended to FoReM 26M. Then, When OSS released BASIC XL the program was rehacked and called FoReM XL... Bill Dorsey wrote most of the Assembler routines (where is he now?). o ABBCS -- The ANTIC Bulletin Board Construction Set. The user design of the ABBCS was very good. It sported features such as intra-line editors. Unfortunately, the coding of the ABBCS was really poor. You could practically blow on your keyboard and crash this BBS. The BBS would sometimes crash several times a day. o NITE-LITE BBS -- Paul Swanson's BBS with RAM disk. Paul Swanson was a programmer from the Boston, Massachusetts, USA, area. I'm not sure whether his BBS for the Atari 8-bit has been placed into the public domain or not. This BBS was the first to support a RAMdisk, which Paul Swanson called a "V:" device for "virtual disk". This BBS was written in Atari BASIC and required a joystick hardware "dongle" device. This was notable as being one of the first Atari 8-BIT BBSes that could actually go for a week without having to be rebooted. Pointers to the message base were kept in an Atari "very long string" (for which Atari BASIC is famous). The BBS would only have problems (for the most part) if this string became corrupted. o ATKEEP -- An Atari 8-bit version of CITADEL BBS. I believe that AT-KEEP, like FOREM-XE, requires the use of the commercial BASIC XE cartridge to run. This BBS program was very popular around Louisiana, USA, from what I understand. o Benton's SMART BBS -- BBS written in BASIC by Marco Benton. This program is written entirely in BASIC. It expects to be running under a SpartaDOS environment. This was a problem until very recently, when the disk-based version of SpartaDOS was re-released as shareware. This BBS program uses a "modem clock string" rather than an R-Time 8 cartridge in order to retrieve the current time. It also comes with an Atari BASIC game door called "Sabotage". o FOREM-XE -- FOREM using BASIC XE. This version of FOREM BBS requires the commercial BASIC XE cartridge in order to run. It is in the public domain and can import and export messages from the Atari PRO! BBS EXPRESS-NET (7-bit text only, control ATASCII graphics are reserved for message data-structure bytes). FOREM-XE BBS is still currently in use as we speak, and may be reached via the PRO! EXPRESS-NET as long as the cross-networking "transnet" is still in effect. o The BBS Express -- PRO! BBS demo program. This is the public domain version of EXPRESS!-BBS, which is the Keith Ledbetter companion project of the EXPRESS!-TERM terminal program of days gone by. I am not familiar with this program. I think that it is written in Action! and only supports XMODEM Checksum transfers. I have never called or seen this program demonstrated. o OASIS JUNIOR III -- OASIS BBS demo program. OASIS JUNIOR III is the --ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE-- demo version of the OASIS BBS program. OASIS is very crash-resistant and comes with a "dial out" screen so that the Sysop can use the BBS as a terminal program to call and fetch files without having to bring the BBS down and reload a terminal program. OASIS supports "Door programs" which it refers to as "OASIS PAL modules". This OASIS demo module comes with an excellent message system. The OASIS file system is one of the most complicated that I have ever seen. It consists of "file libraries" with suites of "file types". There is quite a bit of overhead involved in performing a download (which may be a good thing, as it discourages file hogs). There is a commercial version of OASIS called "OASIS IV" that performs networking. There was an OASIS network between Boston, Massachusets, USA and Murfreesboro(SP?), Tennessee, USA. Occasionally word of the OASIS IV developers reaches the network from New Zealand or Canada. o Frank Walters BBS -- I know nothing about this BBS except that Frank Walters wrote it. o Carina BBS -- a shareware product of Shadow Software. o BBS Express! Professional -- a product of Video 61, o OASIS IV -- a product of ??? o Forem-XE Pro -- by Len Spencer.
Subject: 13.6) What versions of Atari BASIC or the CTIA/GTIA chip do I have? Atari BASIC: At the READY prompt, enter "? PEEK(43234)" If the result is: You have Revision: 162 A 96 B 234 C Freddy Offenga, adds: there's another good answer (IMO): You can also take a look at the part numbers on the IC's inside your Atari and compare them with the numbers from the following table: Part# Version ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ CO12402 + CO14502 A CO60302A B CO24947A C On versions A, B, and C, Greg Miller writes: "Rev A had a number of bugs, not just the commonly described crash bug. Rev B fixed most (maybe all, I don't remember) of these, but in the process, they added a new bug. You see, the crashes were caused by a bug in one of OSS's memory move routines. When the bug was fixed, the fix mistakenly applied to a routine that actually worked in Rev A, causing the new lockup problem. Rev C differs in only a few bytes. AFAIK, the only change was to remove the alteration made to the routine that was broken by Rev B. You can get more details from the annotated source listing published by Compute! books. Bill Wilkinson described many of the problems in detail. He also talked about it in his column in Compute! magazine." Wally Lang adds: --- Warner's Atari issued Rev B in two formats: (1) As a built-in Basic on 600XL and 800XL computers. (2) As a special request order item for 400/800 and 1200XL computers. --- Tramiel's Atari issued Rev C in both formats for XE series computers and ALL previous Atari 8-Bit Computers. CTIA or GTIA installed? In BASIC, type POKE 623,64 [RETURN] and if the screen blackens, you have the GTIA chip. If it stays blue, you have the old CTIA chip. By the way, apparently no CTIA-equipped Ataris were shipped to Europe. Clay Halliwell, provides this tidbit: A bit of trivia: CTIA 400/800s artifacted in blue/green, GTIA 400/800s artifacted in green/blue, and all XL/XEs artifact in red/blue.
Subject: 13.7) Which versions of the Operating System (OS) are there? This section also kept at Atari 8-bit Operating Systems ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Version 3.3, 6/27/1999. By Freddy Offenga ( 400/800 10kB OS roms ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Rev. TV Date CRC-32 Part Nr(s) ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A NTSC (?) (?) (?) A PAL (?) 0x72b3fed4 CO15199, CO15299, CO12399B B NTSC (?) 0x0e86d61d CO12499B, CO14599B, 12399B B PAL (?) (?) (?) XL/XE 16kB OS roms ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Rev. System Date CRC-32 Part Nr(s) ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 10 1200XL 10/26/1982 0xc5c11546 CO60616A, CO60617A 11 1200XL 12/23/1982 (?) CO60616B, CO60617B 1 600XL 03/11/1983 0x643bcc98 CO62024 2 XL/XE 05/10/1983 0x1f9cd270 CO61598B 3 800XE 03/01/1985 0x29f133f7 C300717 4 XEGS 05/07/1987 0x1eaf4002 C101687 (?) This information is missing. If someone can supply this info, please write me an e-mail. NOTES: The 400/800 O.S's consist of three ROMs (two 4kB and one 2kB). The 1200XL contains two ROMs for the OS (8k each), XL/XE's use a single 16k ROM and the 16k XEGS OS is stored in a 32k ROM (together with 8k BASIC and 8k for Missile Command). Origins of ROM information ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 400/800 rev.A NTSC Could exist, since the PAL version exists and rev.A is mentioned in the rev.B source code. 400/800 rev.A PAL All info found in two Atari 400's and Atari 800 ROM module CX801.P 400/800 rev.B NTSC Information from a ROM dump and the rev.B source listing. The part numbers were listed in the catalog from 'Best Electronics'. According to 'Mapping the Atari' rev.B ROMs have a 'B' at the end of the part number, therefore I figure these part numbers are from rev.B. 400/800 rev.B PAL Could exist, since the NTSC version exists and there's some conditional PAL/NTSC assembly in the rev.B source code 1200XL rev.10 PAL/NTSC All info found in an Atari 1200XL. The XL/XE rev.2 source code refers to it as rev.10. 'Best Electronics' calls it rev.A. 1200XL rev.11 PAL/NTSC Refered to rev.11 by the XL/XE source code. 'Best Electronics' calls it rev.B. XL/XE rev.1 All info found in an Atari 600XL XL/XE rev.2 All info found in an Atari 800XL XL/XE rev.3 All info found in an 800XE XL/XE rev.4 All info found in an Atari XE Game System O.S. Authors and dates ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The following info is from the Atari XL/XE rev.2 source code. Revision A (400/800) D.Crane / A.Miller / L.Kaplan / R.Whitehead Revision B (400/800) Fix several problems. M.Mahar / R.S.Scheiman Revision 10 (1200XL) Support 1200XL, add new features. H.Stewart / L.Winner / R.S.Scheiman / Y.M.Chen / M.W.Colburn 10/26/82 Revision 11 (1200XL) Fix several problems. R.S.Scheiman 12/23/82 Revision 1 (600XL/800XL) Support PBI and on-board BASIC. R.S.Scheiman / R.K.Nordin / Y.M.Chen 03/11/83 Revision 2 (600XL/800XL) Fix several problems. R.S.Scheiman 05/10/83 Bring closer to coding standard (object unchanged) R.K.Nordin 11/01/83 Vapour-ware ~~~~~~~~~~~ The following OS roms originate from rare Atari 8-bit systems. Since I don't own any of these (unfortunately), I don't have much information about these roms. Who can help me? I've got two 16K rom dumps from the 1450XLD. Both ID's are rev.3. The first dated 3/23/1984 comes from the 'Pooldisk Too' CD-ROM (filename: 1540os3.v0) and the second dated 6/21/1984 was send to me by Nir Dary (filename: os1450.128). Main differences between these two are in the first 3K ($C000 - $CBFF). The XL/XE OS rev.3B is from an Atari from Arabia. It's probably based on rev.3. There are changes in the fonts (Arab characters) and several patches in the code. More info at: Rev. Found in Size CRC-32 Date ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ 3 1450XLD 16kB 0x0d477aa1 3/23/1984 3 1450XLD 16kB 0xd425a9cf 6/21/1984 3B 65XE 16kB 0xf0a236d3 7/21/1984 References ~~~~~~~~~~ - The modified september Atari 400/800 computer operating system listing, revision B, (c)1982 Atari. - The Atari O.S. source code rev.2, (c)1984 Atari. - Atari XL addendum Atari home computer system operating system manual: supplement to Atari 400/800 technical reference notes. - Best Electronics, catalog of Atari 8-bit parts. - Mapping the Atari, revised edition, Ian Chadwick, Compute! books publication, 1985. Credits ~~~~~~~ Special thanks to Nir Dary for the rev.2 source code, rom dumps and the 1200XL. It's in good hands.
Subject: 13.8) What games support 4 simultaneous players on the 400/800? contributors to this section: (Jeff M Lodoen) (Vidar \"Hawk\" Olavesen) (Pat Mulvey) (Steven E. Posey) (Party Quiz controllers descr) The following games support 4 player head-to-head play. Remember, only the 400 and 800 computer models sport 4 controller ports. Asteroids, Basketball, Dandy, M.U.L.E., Maze War, Silicon Warrior, Survivor, Thorn EMI Soccer, Major League Hockey The following support 8 players on the 400/800 or 4 on the other computer models, using the 2 controllers-per-port CX30 Paddle controllers: Super Breakout, Worms? The following supports 4 players on all machines, using special 4-button keypad controllers linked together with RJ-11 jacks (standard phone jacks) to a box with 2 joystick port connectors. Party Quiz by Suncom
Subject: 13.13) What programming languages are available for the Atari? This section also kept at Revision : 1.3 Date.... : 4/19/1999 ============================================================== !!!! This section is under construction - HELP WANTED !!!! -------------------------------------------------------------- The goal is to give information about all available languages for the Atari 8-bit computer. This information will include: title, last version, author, date and a short description. It would also be nice to know how to get it and where to get more information (like reference cards, reviews and such). Freddy Offenga, mailto: ============================================================== There are quite a lot! To get some structure in this section it's divided into the following categories; a) ASSEMBLER b) BASIC c) C d) PASCAL e) LISP f) FORTH g) PILOT h) LOGO i) All the rest The following format is used: - Language titel (medium) version, year : version, year author/company : author/company available..... : where/how to get it package....... : programs, documentation features...... : main features Description. The question marks (?) indicate that more information is required about that topic. Definitions: umich University of Michigan Atari archive Some resources: - The Multi-lingual Atari, Analog magazine 45, August 1986 - A bunch of manuals - Some copy-pasted lines from the Atari 8-bit newsgroup a) ASSEMBLER - 130XE+ Makro Assembler (disk) version, year : 2.2, 1992 author/company : Torsten Karwoth available..... : freeware, ? package....... : assembler, editor, menu, monitor, batch enhancement, linker/packer features...... : macros Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated menu, editor and monitor shell. Needs extra RAM banks. Source format is derived from Atmas Makroassembler. - A65 (disk) version, year : ?, 1989 author/company : Charles Marslett, WORDMARK Systems available..... : freeware, ? package....... : assembler, manual features...... : source include Two pass 6502 assembler. Source format is based on the Atari Macro Assembler. Assembler source included. - Alfasm, Turbo-Assembler/16 (disk) version, year : 1.0, 1990 author/company : Jeff Williams, DataQue Software available..... : ? package....... : assembler, docs features...... : source include Two pass 6502/65816 assembler. - Atari Assembler/Editor (cart) version, year : ?, 1981 author/company : Atari available..... : ? package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual features...... : - Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor - Atari Macro Assembler (disk) version, year : 1.0C, 1981 author/company : Atari, APX available..... : ? package....... : assembler, editor, debugger, manual features...... : macros, source include Two pass 6502 assembler. - Atmas Makroassembler (disk) version, year : 2, 1985 author/company : Peter Finzel, Hofacker available..... : ? package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual features...... : macros Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor. - Bibo Assembler (disk) version, year : ?, 1986 author/company : Compy-shop available..... : ? package....... : assembler, editor, monitor features...... : source include, data include Two pass 6502/65c02 assembler with integrated editor/ monitor. - Datasm/65 assembler (disk) version, year : 2.0, 1981 author/company : DataSoft Inc. available..... : ? package....... : assembler, editor, menu, manual features...... : - Two pass 6502 assembler. - EASMD (disk) version, year : 1.0, 1981 author/company : OSS available..... : ? package....... : assembler, editor, monitor features...... : ? Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor. - Fast Assembler (disk) version, year : 1.5, 1995 author/company : MMMG Soft available..... : ? package....... : assembler, editor, disassembler features...... : ? - Kasm65 (disk) version, year : 2.41, 1994 author/company : Ken Siders available..... : shareware, umich package....... : assembler, editor, linker, docs features...... : macros, relocation, source include, conditional assembly Two pass 6502 assembler. Relocatable object files are compatible with ra65. Source format is derived from the Atari Macro Assembler. - MAC/65 Macro Assembler (disk|cart) version, year : 2.00, 1982 author/company : Stephen D. Lawrow, OSS available..... : ? package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual features...... : macros, source include Two pass 6502 assembler with integrated editor/monitor. Mac/65 is a direct descendant of the Atari Assembler/ Editor (via EASMD). - MAE (disk) version, year : .96, 1996 author/company : John Harris available..... : umich package....... : assembler, menu, editor, monitor, docs features...... : macros, source include, data include, conditional assembly Two pass 6502/65816 assembler with integrated editor/ monitor. Extra RAM supported. - NASM65 (disk) version, year : ?, 1992 author/company : Nat! available..... : ? package....... : assembler, linker, librarian features...... : macros, relocation, source include One pass 6502 portable cross assembler (initially for the ST). Highly compatible with MAC/65. - PC-65 (disk) version, year : 1.0 beta, 1996 author/company : Jan Feenstra & Freddy Offenga available..... : mailto: package....... : assembler features...... : macros, source include, data include, boundary directive Two pass 6502 cross assembler for the PC. The source format is highly compatible with the ST-65 assembler. - Quick Assembler (disk) version, year : 1.0, 1990? author/company : JBW, Avalon? available..... : ? package....... : assembler, editor, menu, debugger features...... : source include Two pass 6502 cross assembler with integrated editor. Very user friendly menu environment. - Ra65 (disk) version, year : 1.0, 1989 author/company : John R. Dunning available..... : public domain, umich package....... : assembler, linker, librarian part of cc65 (c-compiler) features...... : ? - Synassembler (disk|cart) version, year : ?, 1982 author/company : Steve Hales, Synapse Soft available..... : ? package....... : assembler, editor, monitor, manual features...... : source include Two pass 6502 assembler. - ST-65 (disk) version, year : ?, 1991 author/company : A. Stauffenberg, F. Offenga available..... : mailto: package....... : assembler, menu shell, manual features...... : macros, conditional assembly, source include, data include, boundary directive Two pass 6502/65c02 cross assembler for the Atari ST written in 68000 assembly. As far as I know this is the first assembler with the boundary directive. b) BASIC - A BASIC Compiler (?) version, year : 1.03, ? author/company : Monarch Data Systems available..... : ? package....... : BASIC compiler features...... : ? - Advan BASIC (disk) version, year : ?, ? author/company : Advan Language Designs available..... : ? package....... : BASIC compiler features...... : ? - Atari 800 Basic (disk) version, year : 1.0, 1981 author/company : Microsoft available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? - Atari BASIC (cart) version, year : Rev.C, 1983 author/company : Atari available..... : standard ROM in Atari XL/XE package....... : BASIC interpreter, manual features...... : pretty plain BASIC implementation - Atari Microsoft BASIC II (cart) version, year : ?, 1991 author/company : Atari available..... : ? package....... : BASIC interpreter features...... : ? - BASIC A+ (disk) version, year : 3.05, 1981 author/company : OSS available..... : ? package....... : BASIC interpreter features...... : ? - BASIC XL (cart) version, year : ?, ? author/company : OSS available..... : ? package....... : BASIC interpreter features...... : ? - BASIC XE (cart) version, year : ?, 1985 author/company : OSS available..... : ? package....... : BASIC interpreter features...... : ? - Turbo Basic XL (disk) version, year : 1.5, 1985 author/company : Frank Ostrowski, Happy Computer available..... : ? package....... : BASIC interpreter, compiler (V1.1) features...... : ? Published in the German magazine "Happy Computer". c) C - ACE C (disk) version, year : ? author/company : John Palevich & Ralph Walden available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? This is a newer version of 'Deep Blue C'. - C/65 (?) version, year : ? author/company : OSS available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? Probably derived from Dr.Dobbs "Small C". Compiles to 6502 code which emulates the 8080 instruction set. - C65 (?) version, year : ? author/company : Keith Ledbetter available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : good macro assembler This compiler does not support structs. - CC65 (disk) version, year : 1989 author/company : John R. Dunning available..... : ? package....... : compiler, linker, assembler, librarian features...... : ? Public domain compiler. Also used as cross compiler. Relocatable object linkage files, and the most thorough K&R C for the 8-bit. Comes with an relocatable assembler. - CC8 (disk) version, year : 2.3 author/company : John Palevich & Steve Kennedy available..... : ? package....... : Compiler features...... : ? ACE C with more "real" C support (e.g. arrays of pointers to structs). Requires ACE C runtime libs and linker. - Deep Blue C (disk) version, year : 1.2, 1982 author/company : John Palevich, APX available..... : ? package....... : Compiler, Linker features...... : ? Deep Blue C was originally an independent product, but it then became available from APX. It converts C to pseudo- code and then interprets the pseudo code (8080 instruction set emulation). Drawn from Ron Cain's public domain C-compiler (Small-C). - DVC C (disk) version, year : 1.05, 1985 author/company : Ralph E. Walden available..... : ? package....... : Editor, Compiler, Optimizer, Linker features...... : Quite user friendly program The compiler generates special object files (.CCC) which can be optimized and linked. The package uses a special DOS called DVC DOS which contains runtime stuff. - LightSpeed C (disk) version, year : 1.08, 1986 author/company : Clearstar Softechnology available..... : ? package....... : Compiler, Optimizer, Linker features...... : ? Runs under CLI DOS's and MENU DOS's. - Tiny-C version, year : ? author/company : OSS available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? First sold C compiler by OSS. This compiler was used to compile itself! First true language "bootstrap" on any 8-bit machine (it was also available for Apple and CP/M machines). Derived from Dr.Dobbs "Small C". Compiles to 6502 code which emulates the 8080 instruction set. d) PASCAL - Atari Pascal (disk) version, year : 1.0, 1982 author/company : APX available..... : APX-20102 package....... : ? features...... : ? - Draper Pascal (disk) version, year : 2.1, 1989 author/company : Norm Draper available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? - Kyan Pascal (disk) version, year : 1986 author/company : Kyan Software, APX available..... : ? package....... : editor, compiler, linker, macro-assembler and manual features...... : ? Kyan Pascal would run off a single floppy. The Atari (APX) version needs two drives. A version which runs entirely in 128k should be available too. e) LISP - INTER-LISP/65 (disk) version, year : 2.1, 1981 author/company : Special Software Systems, DataSoft available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? f) FORTH - ValForth (?) version, year : ? author/company : Valpar International available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? - Extended fig-Forth (?) version, year : ? author/company : APX available..... : APX-20029 package....... : ? features...... : ? - fig-Forth (disk) version, year : 1.4s author/company : ? available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? - fun-Forth (?) version, year : ? author/company : APX available..... : APX-20146 package....... : ? features...... : ? - Grafik-FORTH version, year : ? author/company : ? available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? - QS Forth (?) version, year : ? author/company : Quality Software available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? g) PILOT - Atari PILOT (cart) version, year : 1980 author/company : Atari available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? h) LOGO - Atari LOGO (cart) version, year : 1983 author/company : LCSI, Atari available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? i) All the rest - Action! (cart) version, year : 1983 author/company : OSS available..... : ? package....... : compiler, editor, monitor and library features...... : fast compiler which generates good code Needs cartridge for runtime procedures. A PD runtime library is also available. All variables are static, so recursive routine calls are not possible. No floating point type (though a PD library should make this possible). No arrays of objects (arrays of POINTERS to objects are possible). - Quick (disk) version, year : 2.0, 1990 author/company : Raindorf Soft available..... : ? package....... : ? features...... : ? This is the "poor man's Action!". Same restrictions as Action! apply also to Quick. Further restrictions are: only simple assignment expressions, no records and no pointers. - Test Computer Language (disk) version, year : 2.2, 1985-1990 author/company : D.Firth available..... : public domain, ? package....... : compiler and editor features...... : ?
Subject: 13.15) What makes some XL/XE software incompatible with the 400/800? Konrad M.Kokoszkiewicz, writes: XL/XE software won't work on 800 if: 1) it uses shadow RAM at $C000-$CFFF and $D800-$FFFF 2) it uses RAM expansions at $4000-$7FFF controlled by PORTB $D301 3) it uses specific XL OS functions (like JNEWDEVC) 4) it uses illegal XL OS addresses. 5) it uses European Charset :)
Subject: 13.16) What games run only on the 400 and 800 models? The following are reported as incompatable with models other than the original Atari 400/800. Most probably do work on XL/XE's if you use a translator to run the original 400/800 OS on your XL/XE. Apple Panic Broderbund Aquatron Sierra On-Line Astro Chase First Star Software / Parker Atlantis Imagic Attack at EP-CYG-4 (by Bram) Romox Bandits BearJam Chalkboard Inc. Boulders And Bombs CBS Chicken Synapse Demon Attack Imagic Disk 50 Dreadnaught Factor, The Activision Drelbs Synapse Forbidden Forest Cosmi Fort Apocalypse Synapse Galahad And The Holy Grail APX Go Hayden Gorf Roklan Jawbreaker II Jet Boot Jack English Juggler IDSI K-Razy Antiks K-Byte K-razy Kritters CBS Software K-razy Kritters K-Byte Kangaroo Atari prototype KoalaPainter Koala Leo's 'Lectric Paintbrush Chalkboard Inc. Leo's Links Chalkboard Inc. LogicMaster Chalkboard Inc. Lunar Leeper Mario Bros. ('83) Atari Maze Epyx MicroMaestro Chalkboard Inc. Monkey Wrench Monster Maze Epyx Ms. Pac-Man Atari [some problems M.U.L.E.(early release only)Electronic Arts Nautilus Synapse Pac-Man Jr. Atari prototype Picnic Paranoia Synapse Pool 1.5 IDSI Pool 400 IDSI Protector II Synapse Rack 'Em Up Rocklan Shamus Synapse Slime Synapse Snapper Silicon Valley Systems Space Dungeon Atari Squish 'Em Sirius Super Pac-Man Atari prototype
Subject: 13.17) What games make use of the Light Gun? (Bertrand M. (LEXX)) writes: Bug Hunt, Barnyard Blaster, Crossbow, Crimebuster, Operation Blood, Operation Blood II - Special Forces (not completely sure about that one), Light Gun Blaster (PD), Gangsterville (Italian game written in BASIC), maybe a couple more... Bertrand M. (LEXX) James Bradford mentions: "On the 400, the light gun /pen will only work in joystick port 4." This renders much light gun and light pen software unusable on the 400.
Subject: 13.18) How do I type a tilde (common character in Web URL's) on my Atari? The Shadow, writes: The question is: "How do I type the tilde or squigly line which is in most web addresses? I don't have a key for it..." Answer: The tilde is an inverse backspace on the Atari 8-Bit which can be very hard to type depending on the term program you are using, however you can insert the hex equivalent very easily, which is %7e in place of the tilde and it will work just perfectly. Do not put a space either before or after the %7e. I (Michael) add: Some advanced Atari software supports the tilde character natively. E.g., you can type a tilde in Ice-T with the Atari Logo/Inverse Video key.
Subject: 13.19) What's the difference between ASCII and ATASCII? David Moeser -- erasmus att iglou dott com -- produced this nice translation table. ASCII TRANSLATION TABLE -- IBM & ATARI 8-BIT (ATASCII) ====================================================== SECTION ONE: CONTROL CHARACTERS =============================== DECIMAL ATARI IBM <----> ATARI ASCII -HEX NAME KEY GRAPHICS CHARACTER FUNCTION ======= ==== === ====================== ======== 0 00 NUL ^, none heart Null 1 01 SOH ^A smiley |- Start of header 2 02 STX ^B [smiley] right | Start of text 3 03 ETX ^C heart (9:00) End of last text 4 04 EOT ^D diamond -| End of transmission 5 05 ENQ ^E club (8:30) Enquiry 6 06 ACK ^F spade / Acknowledge (handshake) 7 07 BEL ^G rain dot \ Bell 8 08 BS ^H doorbell L triangle Backspace 9 09 HT ^I o low-R-sq. Horizontal tab 10 0A LF ^J [doorbell] R triangle Line feed 11 0B VT ^K Mars hi-R-sq. Vertical tab 12 0C FF ^L Venus hi-L-sq. Form feed 13 0D CR ^M note high bar Carriage return 14 0E SO ^N 2 notes low bar Shift out 15 0F SI ^O sun low-L-sq. Shift in 16 10 DLE ^P R pennant club Data link escape (break) 17 11 DC1 ^Q L pennant (3:30) Device #1 (P:) 18 12 DC2 ^R V arrows -- Device #2 19 13 DC3 ^S !! cross Device #3 (deselects P:) 20 14 DC4 ^T paragraph cloudy Device #4 (stop) 21 15 NAK ^U section low block Negative acknowl. (error) 22 16 SYN ^V short - left | Synchronous idle 23 17 ETB ^W base-V-arrs.low T End of block 24 18 CAN ^X up arrow hi perp. Cancel memory (in buffer) 25 19 EM ^Y DN arrow left half End medium (tape drive) 26 1A SUB ^Z R arrow (3:00) Substitute 27 1B ESC EE L arrow escape Escape 28 1C FS E^- (3:00) up arrow File separator 29 1D GS E^= ice needles DN arrow Group separator 30 1E RS E^+ up triangle L arrow Record separator 31 1F US E^* DN triangle R arrow Unit separator 32 20 SPC bar space space Space SECTION TWO: SPECIAL CHARACTERS =============================== 127 7F DEL ETB home plate R pennant Deleted 155 9B EOL RETURN box, etc. Atascii end of line (only at end of paragraphs or last column for data) 13,10 EOL ENTER ^M^J IBM end of line (at end of every 80-column screen line) 13 EOL ENTER ^M (or ^M and null) Unix end of line KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS: ==================== ^ = control key L = left hi = upper S = shift key R = right low = lower E = escape key UP = points up [ ] = inverse BS = backspace DN = points down V = vertical TB = tab key sq = square perp = perpendicular (time) = position of hands on a clockface Where possible, descriptions of graphics characters are taken from standard symbols used in mathematics, weather, astronomy, etc. Note: Different computer platforms, operating systems, programs, printers, etc. will produce different graphics characters. SECTION THREE: KEYBOARD CHARACTERS ================================== DECIMAL IBM ATARI DECIMAL IBM ATARI -HEX KEY CHAR. KEY CHAR. -HEX KEY CHAR. KEY CHAR. ======= === ==== === ==== ======= === ==== === ==== 32 20 bar space bar space 80 50 P P P P 33 21 S1 ! S1 ! 81 51 Q Q Q Q 34 22 S' " S2 " 82 52 R R R R 35 23 S3 # S3 # 83 53 S S S S 36 24 S4 $ S4 $ 84 54 T T T T 37 25 S5 % S5 % 85 55 U U U U 38 26 S7 & S6 & 86 56 V V V V 39 27 ' ' S7 ' 87 57 W W W W 40 28 S9 ( S9 ( 88 58 X X X X 41 29 S0 ) S0 ) 89 59 Y Y Y Y 42 2A S8 * * * 90 5A Z Z Z Z 43 2B S= + + + 91 5B [ [ S, [ 44 2C , , , , 92 5C \ \ S+ \ 45 2D - - - - 93 5D ] ] S. ] 46 2E . . . . 94 5E S6 ^ S* ^ 47 2F / / / / 95 5F S- _ S- _ 48 30 0 0 0 0 96 60 ` ` ^. ` 49 31 1 1 1 1 97 61 a a a a 50 32 2 2 2 2 98 62 b b b b 51 33 3 3 3 3 99 63 c c c c 52 34 4 4 4 4 100 64 d d d d 53 35 5 5 5 5 101 65 e e e e 54 36 6 6 6 6 102 66 f f f f 55 37 7 7 7 7 103 67 g g g g 56 38 8 8 8 8 104 68 h h h h 57 39 9 9 9 9 105 69 i i i i 58 3A S; : S; : 106 6A j j j j 59 3B ; ; ; ; 107 6B k k k k 60 3C S, < < < 108 6C l l l l 61 3D = = = = 109 6D m m m m 62 3E S. > > > 110 6E n n n n 63 3F S/ ? S/ ? 111 6F o o o o 64 40 S2 @ S8 @ 112 70 p p p p 65 41 A A A A 113 71 q q q q 66 42 B B B B 114 72 r r r r 67 43 C C C C 115 73 s s s s 68 44 D D D D 116 74 t t t t 69 45 E E E E 117 75 u u u u 70 46 F F F F 118 76 v v v v 71 47 G G G G 119 77 w w w w 72 48 H H H H 120 78 x x x x 73 49 I I I I 121 79 y y y y 74 4A J J J J 122 7A z z z z 75 4B K K K K 123 7B S[ { ^; spade 76 4C L L L L 124 7C S\ | S= | 77 4D M M M M 125 7D S] } E^< left-turn 78 4E N N N N 126 7E S` ~ EBS L pennant 79 4F O O O O 127 7F none house ETB R pennant =================================================================== End of atari-8-bit/faq ===================================================================